Zero Vector Space
In algebra, the zero object of a given algebraic structure is, in the sense explained below, the simplest object of such structure. As a set it is a singleton, and as a magma has a trivial structure, which is also an abelian group. The aforementioned abelian group structure is usually identified as addition, and the only element is called zero, so the object itself is typically denoted as . One often refers to ''the'' trivial object (of a specified category) since every trivial object is isomorphic to any other (under a unique isomorphism). Instances of the zero object include, but are not limited to the following: * As a group, the zero group or trivial group. * As a ring, the zero ring or trivial ring. * As an algebra over a field or algebra over a ring, the trivial algebra. * As a module (mathematics), module (over a ring (algebra), ring ), the zero module. The term trivial module is also used, although it may be ambiguous, as a ''trivial Gmodule'' is a Gmodule wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Terminal And Initial Object
Terminal may refer to: Computing Hardware * Terminal (electronics), a device for joining electrical circuits together * Terminal (telecommunication), a device communicating over a line * Computer terminal, a set of primary input and output devices for a computer * Feedback terminal, a physical device used collect anonymous feedback Software * Terminal emulator, a program that emulates a computer terminal within some other display architecture ** Terminal (macOS), a terminal emulator included with macOS ** Windows Terminal, a terminal emulator for Windows 10 and Windows 11 ** GNOME Terminal, a Linux and BSD terminal emulator * Terminal and nonterminal symbols, lexical elements used in specifying the production rules constituting a formal grammar in computer science. Fonts * Terminal (typeface), a monospace font * Terminal (typography), a type of stroke ending Transportation * Airport terminal, a building where passengers embark and disembark aircraft (or cargo is loaded) * Bus s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the modu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called '' vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called ''scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division By Zero
In mathematics, division by zero is division where the divisor (denominator) is zero. Such a division can be formally expressed as \tfrac, where is the dividend (numerator). In ordinary arithmetic, the expression has no meaning, as there is no number that, when multiplied by , gives (assuming a \neq 0); thus, division by zero is undefined. Since any number multiplied by zero is zero, the expression \tfrac is also undefined; when it is the form of a limit, it is an indeterminate form. Historically, one of the earliest recorded references to the mathematical impossibility of assigning a value to \tfrac is contained in AngloIrish philosopher George Berkeley's criticism of infinitesimal calculus in 1734 in '' The Analyst'' ("ghosts of departed quantities"). There are mathematical structures in which \tfrac is defined for some such as in the Riemann sphere (a model of the extended complex plane) and the Projectively extended real line; however, such structures do not satisf ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutative
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result. It is a fundamental property of many binary operations, and many mathematical proofs depend on it. Most familiar as the name of the property that says something like or , the property can also be used in more advanced settings. The name is needed because there are operations, such as division and subtraction, that do not have it (for example, ); such operations are ''not'' commutative, and so are referred to as ''noncommutative operations''. The idea that simple operations, such as the multiplication and addition of numbers, are commutative was for many years implicitly assumed. Thus, this property was not named until the 19th century, when mathematics started to become formalized. A similar property exists for binary relations; a binary relation is said to be symmetric if the relation applies regardless of the order of its operands; for example, equality is sy ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associativity
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Trivial Ring
In ring theory, a branch of mathematics, the zero ring or trivial ring is the unique ring (up to isomorphism) consisting of one element. (Less commonly, the term "zero ring" is used to refer to any rng of square zero, i.e., a rng in which for all ''x'' and ''y''. This article refers to the oneelement ring.) In the category of rings, the zero ring is the terminal object, whereas the ring of integers Z is the initial object. Definition The zero ring, denoted or simply 0, consists of the oneelement set with the operations + and · defined such that 0 + 0 = 0 and 0 · 0 = 0. Properties * The zero ring is the unique ring in which the additive identity 0 and multiplicative identity 1 coincide. (Proof: If in a ring ''R'', then for all ''r'' in ''R'', we have . The proof of the last equality is found here.) * The zero ring is commutative. * The element 0 in the zero ring is a unit, serving as its own multiplicative inverse. * The unit group of the zero ring is the trivial ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Empty Set
In mathematics, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Some axiomatic set theories ensure that the empty set exists by including an axiom of empty set, while in other theories, its existence can be deduced. Many possible properties of sets are vacuously true for the empty set. Any set other than the empty set is called nonempty. In some textbooks and popularizations, the empty set is referred to as the "null set". However, null set is a distinct notion within the context of measure theory, in which it describes a set of measure zero (which is not necessarily empty). The empty set may also be called the void set. Notation Common notations for the empty set include "", "\emptyset", and "∅". The latter two symbols were introduced by the Bourbaki group (specifically André Weil) in 1939, inspired by the letter Ø in the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. In the past, "0" was occasionally used as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finitelygenerated Module
In mathematics, a finitely generated module is a module (mathematics), module that has a Finite set, finite generating set. A finitely generated module over a Ring (mathematics), ring ''R'' may also be called a finite ''R''module, finite over ''R'', or a module of finite type. Related concepts include finitely cogenerated modules, finitely presented modules, finitely related modules and coherent modules all of which are defined below. Over a Noetherian ring the concepts of finitely generated, finitely presented and coherent modules coincide. A finitely generated module over a Field (mathematics), field is simply a Dimension (vector space), finitedimensional vector space, and a finitely generated module over the integers is simply a finitely generated abelian group. Definition The left ''R''module ''M'' is finitely generated if there exist ''a''1, ''a''2, ..., ''a''''n'' in ''M'' such that for any ''x'' in ''M'', there exist ''r''1, ''r''2, ..., ''r''''n'' in ''R'' with ''x'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Scalar Multiplication
In mathematics, scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra (or more generally, a module in abstract algebra). In common geometrical contexts, scalar multiplication of a real Euclidean vector by a positive real number multiplies the magnitude of the vector—without changing its direction. The term " scalar" itself derives from this usage: a scalar is that which scales vectors. Scalar multiplication is the multiplication of a vector by a scalar (where the product is a vector), and is to be distinguished from inner product of two vectors (where the product is a scalar). Definition In general, if ''K'' is a field and ''V'' is a vector space over ''K'', then scalar multiplication is a function from ''K'' × ''V'' to ''V''. The result of applying this function to ''k'' in ''K'' and v in ''V'' is denoted ''k''v. Properties Scalar multiplication obeys the following rules ''(vector in boldface)'': * Additivity in the scalar: ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Properties
Property is the ownership of land, resources, improvements or other tangible objects, or intellectual property. Property may also refer to: Mathematics * Property (mathematics) Philosophy and science * Property (philosophy), in philosophy and logic, an abstraction characterizing an object * Material properties, properties by which the benefits of one material versus another can be assessed * Chemical property, a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction *Physical property, any property that is measurable whose value describes a state of a physical system *Semantic property * Thermodynamic properties, in thermodynamics and materials science, intensive and extensive physical properties of substances * Mental property, a property of the mind studied by many sciences and parasciences Computer science * Property (programming), a type of class member in objectoriented programming * .properties, a Java Properties File to store program settings as namev ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other res ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 