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This is a list of hash functions, including cyclic redundancy checks, checksum functions, and cryptographic hash functions. Cyclic redundancy checks Adler-32 is often mistaken for a CRC, but it is not: it is a checksum. Checksums Universal hash function families Non-cryptographic hash functions Keyed cryptographic hash functions Unkeyed cryptographic hash functions See also *Hash function security summary *Secure Hash Algorithms *NIST hash function competition The NIST hash function competition was an open competition held by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop a new hash function called SHA-3 to complement the older SHA-1 and SHA-2. The competition was formally an ... * Key derivation functions (category) References {{DEFAULTSORT:Hash functions *List Checksum algorithms Cryptography lists and comparisons ...
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Checksum
A checksum is a small-sized block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity. The procedure which generates this checksum is called a checksum function or checksum algorithm. Depending on its design goals, a good checksum algorithm usually outputs a significantly different value, even for small changes made to the input. This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted. Checksum functions are related to hash functions, fingerprints, randomization functi ...
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Checksums
A checksum is a small-sized block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity. The procedure which generates this checksum is called a checksum function or checksum algorithm. Depending on its design goals, a good checksum algorithm usually outputs a significantly different value, even for small changes made to the input. This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted. Checksum functions are related to hash functions, fingerprints, randomization functi ...
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Hash Function
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to fixed-size values. The values returned by a hash function are called ''hash values'', ''hash codes'', ''digests'', or simply ''hashes''. The values are usually used to index a fixed-size table called a ''hash table''. Use of a hash function to index a hash table is called ''hashing'' or ''scatter storage addressing''. Hash functions and their associated hash tables are used in data storage and retrieval applications to access data in a small and nearly constant time per retrieval. They require an amount of storage space only fractionally greater than the total space required for the data or records themselves. Hashing is a computationally and storage space-efficient form of data access that avoids the non-constant access time of ordered and unordered lists and structured trees, and the often exponential storage requirements of direct access of state spaces of large or variable-length keys. Use o ...
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Verhoeff Algorithm
The Verhoeff algorithm is a checksum formula for error detection developed by the Dutch mathematician Jacobus Verhoeff and was first published in 1969. It was the first decimal check digit algorithm which detects all single-digit errors, and all transposition errors involving two adjacent digits, which was at the time thought impossible with such a code. Goals Verhoeff had the goal of finding a decimal code—one where the check digit is a single decimal digit—which detected all single-digit errors and all transpositions of adjacent digits. At the time, supposed proofs of the nonexistence of these codes made base-11 codes popular, for example in the ISBN check digit. His goals were also practical, and he based the evaluation of different codes on live data from the Dutch postal system, using a weighted points system for different kinds of error. The analysis broke the errors down into a number of categories: first, by how many digits are in error; for those with two digits in ...
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Daniel J
Daniel is a masculine given name and a surname of Hebrew origin. It means "God is my judge"Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, , p. 68. (cf. Gabriel—"God is my strength"), and derives from two early biblical figures, primary among them Daniel from the Book of Daniel. It is a common given name for males, and is also used as a surname. It is also the basis for various derived given names and surnames. Background The name evolved into over 100 different spellings in countries around the world. Nicknames ( Dan, Danny) are common in both English and Hebrew; "Dan" may also be a complete given name rather than a nickname. The name "Daniil" (Даниил) is common in Russia. Feminine versions ( Danielle, Danièle, Daniela, Daniella, Dani, Danitza) are prevalent as well. It has been particularly well-used in Ireland. The Dutch names "Daan" and "Daniël" are also variations of Daniel. A related surname d ...
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Jenkins Hash Function
The Jenkins hash functions are a collection of (non-cryptographic) hash functions for multi-byte keys designed by Bob Jenkins. The first one was formally published in 1997. The hash functions one_at_a_time Jenkins's one_at_a_time hash is adapted here from a WWW page by Bob Jenkins, which is an expanded version of his '' Dr. Dobb's'' article. It was originally created to fulfill certain requirements described by Colin Plumb, a cryptographer, but was ultimately not put to use. uint32_t jenkins_one_at_a_time_hash(const uint8_t* key, size_t length) Sample hash values for one_at_a_time hash function. one_at_a_time("a", 1) 0xca2e9442 one_at_a_time("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog", 43) 0x519e91f5 The avalanche behavior of this hash is shown on the right. Each of the 24 rows corresponds to a single bit in the 3-byte input key, and each of the 32 columns corresponds to a bit in the output hash. Colors are chosen by how well the input key bit affects the given outp ...
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Fowler–Noll–Vo Hash Function
Fowler–Noll–Vo (or FNV) is a non- cryptographic hash function created by Glenn Fowler, Landon Curt Noll, and Kiem-Phong Vo. The basis of the FNV hash algorithm was taken from an idea sent as reviewer comments to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2 committee by Glenn Fowler and Phong Vo in 1991. In a subsequent ballot round, Landon Curt Noll improved on their algorithm. In an email message to Landon, they named it the ''Fowler/Noll/Vo'' or FNV hash. Overview The current versions are FNV-1 and FNV-1a, which supply a means of creating non-zero FNV offset basis. FNV currently comes in 32-, 64-, 128-, 256-, 512-, and 1024-bit variants. For pure FNV implementations, this is determined solely by the availability of FNV primes for the desired bit length; however, the FNV webpage discusses methods of adapting one of the above versions to a smaller length that may or may not be a power of two. The FNV hash algorithms and reference FNV source code have been released into the public domain. The Py ...
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Rolling Hash
A rolling hash (also known as recursive hashing or rolling checksum) is a hash function where the input is hashed in a window that moves through the input. A few hash functions allow a rolling hash to be computed very quickly—the new hash value is rapidly calculated given only the old hash value, the old value removed from the window, and the new value added to the window—similar to the way a moving average function can be computed much more quickly than other low-pass filters. One of the main applications is the Rabin–Karp string search algorithm, which uses the rolling hash described below. Another popular application is the rsync program, which uses a checksum based on Mark Adler's adler-32 as its rolling hash. Low Bandwidth Network Filesystem (LBFS) uses a Rabin fingerprint as its rolling hash. FastCDC (Fast Content-Defined Chunking) uses a compute-efficient Gear fingerprint as its rolling hash. At best, rolling hash values are pairwise independentDaniel Lemire, Owen ...
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Pearson Hashing
Pearson hashing is a hash function designed for fast execution on processors with 8-bit registers. Given an input consisting of any number of bytes, it produces as output a single byte that is strongly dependent on every byte of the input. Its implementation requires only a few instructions, plus a 256-byte lookup table containing a permutation of the values 0 through 255. This hash function is a CBC-MAC that uses an 8-bit substitution cipher implemented via the substitution table. An 8-bit cipher has negligible cryptographic security, so the Pearson hash function is not cryptographically strong, but it is useful for implementing hash tables or as a data integrity check code, for which purposes it offers these benefits: * It is extremely simple. * It executes quickly on resource-limited processors. * There is no simple class of inputs for which collisions (identical outputs) are especially likely. * Given a small, privileged set of inputs (e.g., reserved words for a compiler), t ...
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Zobrist Hashing
Zobrist hashing (also referred to as Zobrist keys or Zobrist signatures Bruce Moreland/ref>) is a hash function construction used in computer programs that play abstract board games, such as chess and Go, to implement transposition tables, a special kind of hash table that is indexed by a board position and used to avoid analyzing the same position more than once. Zobrist hashing is named for its inventor, Albert Lindsey Zobrist.Albert Lindsey Zobrist''A New Hashing Method with Application for Game Playing'' Tech. Rep. 88, Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, (1969). It has also been applied as a method for recognizing substitutional alloy configurations in simulations of crystalline materials. Zobrist hashing is the first known instance of the generally useful underlying technique called tabulation hashing. Calculation of the hash value Zobrist hashing starts by randomly generating bitstrings for each possible element of a board game, ...
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Universal One-way Hash Function
In cryptography a universal one-way hash function (UOWHF, often pronounced "woof"), is a type of universal hash function of particular importance to cryptography. UOWHF's are proposed as an alternative to collision-resistant hash functions (CRHFs). CRHFs have a strong collision-resistance property: that it is hard, given randomly chosen hash function parameters, to find any collision of the hash function. In contrast, UOWHFs require that it be hard to find a collision where one preimage is chosen independently of the hash function parameters. The primitive was suggested by Moni Naor and Moti Yung and is also known as "target collision resistant" hash functions; it was employed to construct general digital signature schemes without trapdoor functions, and also within chosen-ciphertext secure public key encryption schemes. The UOWHF family contains a finite number of hash functions with each having the same probability of being used. Definition The security property of a UOWHF is ...
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Tabulation Hashing
In computer science, tabulation hashing is a method for constructing universal families of hash functions by combining table lookup with exclusive or operations. It was first studied in the form of Zobrist hashing for computer games; later work by Carter and Wegman extended this method to arbitrary fixed-length keys. Generalizations of tabulation hashing have also been developed that can handle variable-length keys such as text strings. Despite its simplicity, tabulation hashing has strong theoretical properties that distinguish it from some other hash functions. In particular, it is 3-independent: every 3-tuple of keys is equally likely to be mapped to any 3-tuple of hash values. However, it is not 4-independent. More sophisticated but slower variants of tabulation hashing extend the method to higher degrees of independence. Because of its high degree of independence, tabulation hashing is usable with hashing methods that require a high-quality hash function, including hopsco ...
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