Vertextransitive Graph
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a vertextransitive graph is a graph in which, given any two vertices and of , there is some automorphism :f : G \to G\ such that :f(v_1) = v_2.\ In other words, a graph is vertextransitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on its vertices.. A graph is vertextransitive if and only if its graph complement is, since the group actions are identical. Every symmetric graph without isolated vertices is vertextransitive, and every vertextransitive graph is regular. However, not all vertextransitive graphs are symmetric (for example, the edges of the truncated tetrahedron), and not all regular graphs are vertextransitive (for example, the Frucht graph and Tietze's graph). Finite examples Finite vertextransitive graphs include the symmetric graphs (such as the Petersen graph, the Heawood graph and the vertices and edges of the Platonic solids). The finite Cayley graphs (such as cubeconnected cycl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Path (graph Theory)
In graph theory, a path in a graph is a finite or infinite sequence of edges which joins a sequence of vertices which, by most definitions, are all distinct (and since the vertices are distinct, so are the edges). A directed path (sometimes called dipathGraph Structure Theory: Proceedings of the AMSIMSSIAM Joint Summer Research Conference on Graph Minors, Held June 22 to July 5, 1991p.205/ref>) in a directed graph is a finite or infinite sequence of edges which joins a sequence of distinct vertices, but with the added restriction that the edges be all directed in the same direction. Paths are fundamental concepts of graph theory, described in the introductory sections of most graph theory texts. See e.g. Bondy and Murty (1976), Gibbons (1985), or Diestel (2005). Korte et al. (1990) cover more advanced algorithmic topics concerning paths in graphs. Definitions Walk, trail, and path * A walk is a finite or infinite sequence of edges which joins a sequence of vertices. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Graph
In graph theory, a regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbors; i.e. every vertex has the same degree or valency. A regular directed graph must also satisfy the stronger condition that the indegree and outdegree of each vertex are equal to each other. A regular graph with vertices of degree is called a graph or regular graph of degree . Also, from the handshaking lemma, a regular graph contains an even number of vertices with odd degree. Regular graphs of degree at most 2 are easy to classify: a graph consists of disconnected vertices, a graph consists of disconnected edges, and a graph consists of a disjoint union of cycles and infinite chains. A graph is known as a cubic graph. A strongly regular graph is a regular graph where every adjacent pair of vertices has the same number of neighbors in common, and every nonadjacent pair of vertices has the same number of neighbors in common. The smallest graphs that are regular but not st ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Connectivity (graph Theory)
In mathematics and computer science, connectivity is one of the basic concepts of graph theory: it asks for the minimum number of elements (nodes or edges) that need to be removed to separate the remaining nodes into two or more isolated subgraphs. It is closely related to the theory of network flow problems. The connectivity of a graph is an important measure of its resilience as a network. Connected vertices and graphs In an undirected graph , two '' vertices'' and are called connected if contains a path from to . Otherwise, they are called disconnected. If the two vertices are additionally connected by a path of length , i.e. by a single edge, the vertices are called adjacent. A graph is said to be connected if every pair of vertices in the graph is connected. This means that there is a path between every pair of vertices. An undirected graph that is not connected is called disconnected. An undirected graph ''G'' is therefore disconnected if there exist two vertices ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parity (mathematics)
In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer of whether it is even or odd. An integer is even if it is a multiple of two, and odd if it is not.. For example, −4, 0, 82 are even because \begin 2 \cdot 2 &= 4 \\ 0 \cdot 2 &= 0 \\ 41 \cdot 2 &= 82 \end By contrast, −3, 5, 7, 21 are odd numbers. The above definition of parity applies only to integer numbers, hence it cannot be applied to numbers like 1/2 or 4.201. See the section "Higher mathematics" below for some extensions of the notion of parity to a larger class of "numbers" or in other more general settings. Even and odd numbers have opposite parities, e.g., 22 (even number) and 13 (odd number) have opposite parities. In particular, the parity of zero is even. Any two consecutive integers have opposite parity. A number (i.e., integer) expressed in the decimal numeral system is even or odd according to whether its last digit is even or odd. That is, if the last digit is 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, then it is odd; other ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bipartite Graph
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a bipartite graph (or bigraph) is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint and independent sets U and V, that is every edge connects a vertex in U to one in V. Vertex sets U and V are usually called the ''parts'' of the graph. Equivalently, a bipartite graph is a graph that does not contain any oddlength cycles. The two sets U and V may be thought of as a coloring of the graph with two colors: if one colors all nodes in U blue, and all nodes in V red, each edge has endpoints of differing colors, as is required in the graph coloring problem.. In contrast, such a coloring is impossible in the case of a nonbipartite graph, such as a triangle: after one node is colored blue and another red, the third vertex of the triangle is connected to vertices of both colors, preventing it from being assigned either color. One often writes G=(U,V,E) to denote a bipartite graph whose partition has the parts U and V, with E denoti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Edgetransitive Graph
In the mathematical field of graph theory, an edgetransitive graph is a graph such that, given any two edges and of , there is an automorphism of that maps to . In other words, a graph is edgetransitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on its edges. Examples and properties The number of connected simple edgetransitive graphs on n vertices is 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 8, 9, 13, 7, 19, 10, 16, 25, 26, 12, 28 ... Edgetransitive graphs include all symmetric graph, such as the vertices and edges of the cube. Symmetric graphs are also vertextransitive (if they are connected), but in general edgetransitive graphs need not be vertextransitive. Every connected edgetransitive graph that is not vertextransitive must be bipartite, (and hence can be colored with only two colors), and either semisymmetric or biregular.. Examples of edge but not vertex transitive graphs include the complete bipartite graphs K_ where m ≠ n, which includes the star graphs K_. F ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Line Graph
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, the line graph of an undirected graph is another graph that represents the adjacencies between edges of . is constructed in the following way: for each edge in , make a vertex in ; for every two edges in that have a vertex in common, make an edge between their corresponding vertices in . The name line graph comes from a paper by although both and used the construction before this. Other terms used for the line graph include the covering graph, the derivative, the edgetovertex dual, the conjugate, the representative graph, and the θobrazom, as well as the edge graph, the interchange graph, the adjoint graph, and the derived graph., p. 71. proved that with one exceptional case the structure of a connected graph can be recovered completely from its line graph. Many other properties of line graphs follow by translating the properties of the underlying graph from vertices into edges, and by Whitney's theorem the same ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Archimedean Solid
In geometry, an Archimedean solid is one of the 13 solids first enumerated by Archimedes. They are the convex uniform polyhedra composed of regular polygons meeting in identical vertices, excluding the five Platonic solids (which are composed of only one type of polygon), excluding the prisms and antiprisms, and excluding the pseudorhombicuboctahedron. They are a subset of the Johnson solids, whose regular polygonal faces do not need to meet in identical vertices. "Identical vertices" means that each two vertices are symmetric to each other: A global isometry of the entire solid takes one vertex to the other while laying the solid directly on its initial position. observed that a 14th polyhedron, the elongated square gyrobicupola (or pseudorhombicuboctahedron), meets a weaker definition of an Archimedean solid, in which "identical vertices" means merely that the faces surrounding each vertex are of the same types (i.e. each vertex looks the same from close up), so only a l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cubeconnected Cycles
In graph theory, the cubeconnected cycles is an undirected cubic graph, formed by replacing each vertex of a hypercube graph by a cycle. It was introduced by for use as a network topology in parallel computing. Definition The cubeconnected cycles of order ''n'' (denoted CCC''n'') can be defined as a graph formed from a set of ''n''2''n'' nodes, indexed by pairs of numbers (''x'', ''y'') where 0 ≤ ''x'' < 2''n'' and 0 ≤ ''y'' < ''n''. Each such node is connected to three neighbors: , , and , where "⊕" denotes the bitwise exclusive or operation on binary numbers. This graph can also be interpreted as the result of replacing each vertex of an ''n''dimensional hypercube graph by an ''n''vertex cycle. The hypercube graph vertices are indexed by the numbers ''x'', and the positions within each cycle by the numbers ''y''. Properties The cubeconnected cycles of order ''n'' is the Cayley graph of a group that acts on binary words of length ''n'' by rotation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cayley Graph
In mathematics, a Cayley graph, also known as a Cayley color graph, Cayley diagram, group diagram, or color group is a graph that encodes the abstract structure of a group. Its definition is suggested by Cayley's theorem (named after Arthur Cayley), and uses a specified set of generators for the group. It is a central tool in combinatorial and geometric group theory. The structure and symmetry of Cayley graphs makes them particularly good candidates for constructing families of expander graphs. Definition Let G be a group and S be a generating set of G. The Cayley graph \Gamma = \Gamma(G,S) is an edgecolored directed graph constructed as follows: In his Collected Mathematical Papers 10: 403–405. * Each element g of G is assigned a vertex: the vertex set of \Gamma is identified with G. * Each element s of S is assigned a color c_s. * For every g \in G and s \in S, there is a directed edge of color c_s from the vertex corresponding to g to the one corresponding to gs. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 