Unique Factorization Domain
In mathematics, a unique factorization domain (UFD) (also sometimes called a factorial ring following the terminology of Bourbaki) is a ring in which a statement analogous to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic holds. Specifically, a UFD is an integral domain (a nontrivial commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero) in which every nonzero nonunit element can be written as a product of prime elements (or irreducible elements), uniquely up to order and units. Important examples of UFDs are the integers and polynomial rings in one or more variables with coefficients coming from the integers or from a field. Unique factorization domains appear in the following chain of class inclusions: Definition Formally, a unique factorization domain is defined to be an integral domain ''R'' in which every nonzero element ''x'' of ''R'' can be written as a product (an empty product if ''x'' is a unit) of irreducible elements ''p''i of ''R'' and a uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Domain
In mathematics, more specifically in ring theory, a Euclidean domain (also called a Euclidean ring) is an integral domain that can be endowed with a Euclidean function which allows a suitable generalization of the Euclidean division of integers. This generalized Euclidean algorithm can be put to many of the same uses as Euclid's original algorithm in the ring of integers: in any Euclidean domain, one can apply the Euclidean algorithm to compute the greatest common divisor of any two elements. In particular, the greatest common divisor of any two elements exists and can be written as a linear combination of them (BÃ©zout's identity). Also every ideal in a Euclidean domain is principal, which implies a suitable generalization of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every Euclidean domain is a unique factorization domain. It is important to compare the class of Euclidean domains with the larger class of principal ideal domains (PIDs). An arbitrary PID has much the same "struct ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Localization Of A Ring
In commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, localization is a formal way to introduce the "denominators" to a given ring or module. That is, it introduces a new ring/module out of an existing ring/module ''R'', so that it consists of fractions \frac, such that the denominator ''s'' belongs to a given subset ''S'' of ''R''. If ''S'' is the set of the nonzero elements of an integral domain, then the localization is the field of fractions: this case generalizes the construction of the field \Q of rational numbers from the ring \Z of integers. The technique has become fundamental, particularly in algebraic geometry, as it provides a natural link to sheaf theory. In fact, the term ''localization'' originated in algebraic geometry: if ''R'' is a ring of functions defined on some geometric object (algebraic variety) ''V'', and one wants to study this variety "locally" near a point ''p'', then one considers the set ''S'' of all functions that are not zero at ''p'' and localizes ''R'' wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Noetherian Ring
In mathematics, a Noetherian ring is a ring that satisfies the ascending chain condition on left and right ideals; if the chain condition is satisfied only for left ideals or for right ideals, then the ring is said leftNoetherian or rightNoetherian respectively. That is, every increasing sequence I_1\subseteq I_2 \subseteq I_3 \subseteq \cdots of left (or right) ideals has a largest element; that is, there exists an such that: I_=I_=\cdots. Equivalently, a ring is leftNoetherian (resp. rightNoetherian) if every left ideal (resp. rightideal) is finitely generated. A ring is Noetherian if it is both left and rightNoetherian. Noetherian rings are fundamental in both commutative and noncommutative ring theory since many rings that are encountered in mathematics are Noetherian (in particular the ring of integers, polynomial rings, and rings of algebraic integers in number fields), and many general theorems on rings rely heavily on Noetherian property (for example, the Laskerâ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zariski Ring
In commutative algebra, a Zariski ring is a commutative Noetherian topological ring ''A'' whose topology is defined by an ideal \mathfrak a contained in the Jacobson radical, the intersection of all maximal ideals. They were introduced by under the name "semilocal ring" which now means something different, and named "Zariski rings" by . Examples of Zariski rings are noetherian local rings with the topology induced by the maximal ideal, and \mathfrak aadic completions of Noetherian rings. Let ''A'' be a Noetherian topological ring with the topology defined by an ideal \mathfrak a. Then the following are equivalent. * ''A'' is a Zariski ring. * The completion \widehat is faithfully flat over ''A'' (in general, it is only flat over ''A''). * Every maximal ideal is closed. References * * * *{{Citation , last1=Zariski , first1=Oscar , author1link=Oscar Zariski , last2=Samuel , first2=Pierre , author2link=Pierre Samuel , title=Commutative algebra. Vol. II , publisher=Sprin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Local Ring
In commutative algebra, a regular local ring is a Noetherian local ring having the property that the minimal number of generators of its maximal ideal is equal to its Krull dimension. In symbols, let ''A'' be a Noetherian local ring with maximal ideal m, and suppose ''a''1, ..., ''a''''n'' is a minimal set of generators of m. Then by Krull's principal ideal theorem ''n'' â‰¥ dim ''A'', and ''A'' is defined to be regular if ''n'' = dim ''A''. The appellation ''regular'' is justified by the geometric meaning. A point ''x'' on an algebraic variety ''X'' is nonsingular if and only if the local ring \mathcal_ of germs at ''x'' is regular. (See also: regular scheme.) Regular local rings are ''not'' related to von Neumann regular rings. For Noetherian local rings, there is the following chain of inclusions: Characterizations There are a number of useful definitions of a regular local ring, one of which is mentioned above. In particular, if A is a Noetherian local ring with maximal idea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Auslanderâ€“Buchsbaum Theorem
In commutative algebra, the Auslanderâ€“Buchsbaum theorem states that regular local rings are unique factorization domains. The theorem was first proved by . They showed that regular local ring In abstract algebra, more specifically ring theory, local rings are certain rings that are comparatively simple, and serve to describe what is called "local behaviour", in the sense of functions defined on varieties or manifolds, or of algebraic num ...s of dimension 3 are unique factorization domains, and had previously shown that this implies that all regular local rings are unique factorization domains. References * * Commutative algebra Theorems in ring theory {{abstractalgebrastub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Ideal
In algebra, a prime ideal is a subset of a ring that shares many important properties of a prime number in the ring of integers. The prime ideals for the integers are the sets that contain all the multiples of a given prime number, together with the zero ideal. Primitive ideals are prime, and prime ideals are both primary and semiprime. Prime ideals for commutative rings An ideal of a commutative ring is prime if it has the following two properties: * If and are two elements of such that their product is an element of , then is in or is in , * is not the whole ring . This generalizes the following property of prime numbers, known as Euclid's lemma: if is a prime number and if divides a product of two integers, then divides or divides . We can therefore say :A positive integer is a prime number if and only if n\Z is a prime ideal in \Z. Examples * A simple example: In the ring R=\Z, the subset of even numbers is a prime ideal. * Given an integral domain R ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Formal Power Series
In mathematics, a formal series is an infinite sum that is considered independently from any notion of convergence, and can be manipulated with the usual algebraic operations on series (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, partial sums, etc.). A formal power series is a special kind of formal series, whose terms are of the form a x^n where x^n is the nth power of a variable x (n is a nonnegative integer), and a is called the coefficient. Hence, power series can be viewed as a generalization of polynomials, where the number of terms is allowed to be infinite, with no requirements of convergence. Thus, the series may no longer represent a function of its variable, merely a formal sequence of coefficients, in contrast to a power series, which defines a function by taking numerical values for the variable within a radius of convergence. In a formal power series, the x^n are used only as positionholders for the coefficients, so that the coefficient of x^5 is the fifth ter ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial Ring
In mathematics, especially in the field of algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field. Often, the term "polynomial ring" refers implicitly to the special case of a polynomial ring in one indeterminate over a field. The importance of such polynomial rings relies on the high number of properties that they have in common with the ring of the integers. Polynomial rings occur and are often fundamental in many parts of mathematics such as number theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry. In ring theory, many classes of rings, such as unique factorization domains, regular rings, group rings, rings of formal power series, Ore polynomials, graded rings, have been introduced for generalizing some properties of polynomial rings. A closely related notion is that of the ring ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 