Underground Stems
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Underground Stems
Underground stems are modified plants that derive from stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ... tissue but exist under the soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ... surface. They function as storage tissues for food and nutrients, propagation of new clones, and perennation (survival from one growing season to the next). Types include bulb In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The ter ...
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Plant Stem
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 ..., the other being the root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group .... It supports leaves, flowers and fruits, transports water and dissolved substances between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem, stores nutrients, and produces new living tissue. The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes: * The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life ...
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Bulb
In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ..., a bulb is structurally a short stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ... with fleshy leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together form the shoot system. Leaves are ... or leaf basesBell, A.D. 1997. ''Plant form: an illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology''. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. that function as food Fo ...
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Yam (vegetable)
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus ''Dioscorea'' (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Yams are perennial plant, perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate climate, temperate and tropics, tropical regions, especially in West Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. The tubers themselves, also called "yams", come in a variety of forms owing to numerous cultivars and related species. Yams were independently domesticated on three different continents: Africa (''Dioscorea rotundata''), Asia (''Dioscorea alata''), and the Americas (''Dioscorea trifida''). Etymology The name "yam" appears to derive from Portuguese ''inhame'' or Canarian (Spain) ''ñame'', which derived from West African languages during trade. Although in both languages, this name is commonly referred to the plant taro (''Colocasia esculenta'') from the genus Colocasia, as opposed to Dioscorea. T ...
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Ginger
Ginger (''Zingiber officinale'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ... whose rhizome In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the A ..., ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was releas ... and a folk medicine Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspec ...
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Potato
The potato is a starch#Food, starchy tuber of the plant ''Solanum tuberosum'' and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial plant, perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas, from Canada to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native Americans independently in multiple locations,University of Wisconsin-Madison, ''Finding rewrites the evolutionary history of the origin of potatoes'' (2005/ref> but later genetic traced a single origin, in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia. Potatoes were Domestication, domesticated there approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago, from a species in the ''Solanum brevicaule'' complex. In the Andes region of South America, where the species is Indigenous species, indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to ...
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Onion
The onion (''Allium cepa'' L., from Latin ''cepa'' "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems ... that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus ''Allium ''Allium'' is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives. The Generic name (biology), generic name ''Allium'' is the Latin word for ...''. The shallot The shallot is a botanical variety (a cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed pr ... is a botanical variety of the ...
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Tuber
Tubers are enlarged structures used as storage organ A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and included algae and fung ...s for nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and t ...s in some plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...s. They are used for the plant's perennationIn botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the La ...
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Stolon
In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Development ..., stolons (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ... '' stolō'', genitive ''stolōnis'' – "branch"), also known as runners, are horizontal connections between organisms. They may be part of the organism, or of its skeleton A skeleton is a structural frame that supports an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consu ...; typically, animal ...
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Poaceae
Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ... of monocotyledon Monocotyledons (), commonly referred to as monocots, ( ' Chase & Reveal) are and grass-like s (angiosperms), the s of which typically contain only one nic leaf, or . They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have tr ...ous flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...s known as grasses. It includes the cereal A cereal is any grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain ...
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Iris (plant)
''Iris'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ... of 260–300 species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ... of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...s with showy flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blo ...
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Rhizome
In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ... and dendrology Dendrology ( grc, δένδρον, ''dendron'', "tree"; and grc, -λογία, '' -logia'', ''science of'' or ''study of'') or xylology ( grc, ξύλον, ''ksulon'', "wood") is the science and study of wooded plants (tree In botany, a tr ..., a rhizome (, from grc, rhízōma, script=Latn (ῥίζωμα) – "mass of roots", from (ῥιζόω) "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant structures in plant development are buds, shoots, root In vascular plants, the roots are the plant organ, organs of a plant that are modified to provide anchorage for the pl ... that sends out root In vascular plan ...
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Corm
A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ that some plants use to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (perennation). The word ''cormous'' usually means plants that grow from corms, parallel to the terms ''tuberous'' and ''bulbous'' to describe plants growing from tubers and bulbs. Structure A corm consists of one or more Internode (botany), internodes with at least one growing point, generally with protective leaves modified into skins or Tunica (biology), tunics. The tunic of a corm forms from dead Petiole (botany), petiole sheaths—remnants of leaves produced in previous years. They act as a covering, protecting the corm from insects, digging animals, flooding, and water loss. The tunics of some species are thin, dry, and papery, at least in young plants, however, in some families, such as ''Iridaceae'', the tunic of a mature corm can be formidable protect ...
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