Ultrafilter
In the mathematical field of order theory, an ultrafilter on a given partially ordered set (or "poset") P is a certain subset of P, namely a maximal filter on P; that is, a proper filter on P that cannot be enlarged to a bigger proper filter on P. If X is an arbitrary set, its power set \wp(X), ordered by set inclusion, is always a Boolean algebra and hence a poset, and ultrafilters on \wp(X) are usually called X.If X happens to be partially ordered, too, particular care is needed to understand from the context whether an (ultra)filter on \wp(X) or an (ultra)filter just on X is meant; both kinds of (ultra)filters are quite different. Some authors use "(ultra)filter" ''of'' a partial ordered set" vs. "''on'' an arbitrary set"; i.e. they write "(ultra)filter on X" to abbreviate "(ultra)filter of \wp(X)". An ultrafilter on a set X may be considered as a finitely additive measure on X. In this view, every subset of X is either considered "almost everything" (has measure 1) or "almos ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ultrafilter Lemma
In the mathematical field of set theory, an ultrafilter is a ''maximal proper filter'': it is a filter U on a given nonempty set X which is a certain type of nonempty family of subsets of X, that is not equal to the power set \wp(X) of X (such filters are called ) and that is also "maximal" in that there does not exist any other proper filter on X that contains it as a proper subset. Said differently, a proper filter U is called an ultrafilter if there exists proper filter that contains it as a subset, that proper filter (necessarily) being U itself. More formally, an ultrafilter U on X is a proper filter that is also a maximal filter on X with respect to set inclusion, meaning that there does not exist any proper filter on X that contains U as a proper subset. Ultrafilters on sets are an important special instance of ultrafilters on partially ordered sets, where the partially ordered set consists of the power set \wp(X) and the partial order is subset inclusion \,\subsete ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ultrafilter (set Theory)
In the mathematical field of set theory, an ultrafilter is a ''maximal proper filter'': it is a filter U on a given nonempty set X which is a certain type of nonempty family of subsets of X, that is not equal to the power set \wp(X) of X (such filters are called ) and that is also "maximal" in that there does not exist any other proper filter on X that contains it as a proper subset. Said differently, a proper filter U is called an ultrafilter if there exists proper filter that contains it as a subset, that proper filter (necessarily) being U itself. More formally, an ultrafilter U on X is a proper filter that is also a maximal filter on X with respect to set inclusion, meaning that there does not exist any proper filter on X that contains U as a proper subset. Ultrafilters on sets are an important special instance of ultrafilters on partially ordered sets, where the partially ordered set consists of the power set \wp(X) and the partial order is subset inclusion \,\subsete ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ultrafilter On The Powerset Of A Set
In the mathematical field of order theory, an ultrafilter on a given partially ordered set (or "poset") P is a certain subset of P, namely a maximal filter on P; that is, a proper filter on P that cannot be enlarged to a bigger proper filter on P. If X is an arbitrary set, its power set \wp(X), ordered by set inclusion, is always a Boolean algebra and hence a poset, and ultrafilters on \wp(X) are usually called X.If X happens to be partially ordered, too, particular care is needed to understand from the context whether an (ultra)filter on \wp(X) or an (ultra)filter just on X is meant; both kinds of (ultra)filters are quite different. Some authors use "(ultra)filter" ''of'' a partial ordered set" vs. "''on'' an arbitrary set"; i.e. they write "(ultra)filter on X" to abbreviate "(ultra)filter of \wp(X)". An ultrafilter on a set X may be considered as a finitely additive measure on X. In this view, every subset of X is either considered "almost everything" (has measure 1) ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Principal Filter
In mathematics, a filter on a set X is a family \mathcal of subsets such that: # X \in \mathcal and \emptyset \notin \mathcal # if A\in \mathcal and B \in \mathcal, then A\cap B\in \mathcal # If A,B\subset X,A\in \mathcal, and A\subset B, then B\in \mathcal A filter on a set may be thought of as representing a "collection of large subsets". Filters appear in order, model theory, set theory, but can also be found in topology, from which they originate. The dual notion of a filter is an ideal. Filters were introduced by Henri Cartan in 1937 and as described in the article dedicated to filters in topology, they were subsequently used by Nicolas Bourbaki in their book ''Topologie Générale'' as an alternative to the related notion of a net developed in 1922 by E. H. Moore and Herman L. Smith. Order filters are generalizations of filters from sets to arbitrary partially ordered sets. Specifically, a filter on a set is just a proper order filter in the special case where the part ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Prime Ideal Theorem
In mathematics, the Boolean prime ideal theorem states that Ideal (order theory), ideals in a Boolean algebra (structure), Boolean algebra can be extended to Ideal (order theory)#Prime ideals , prime ideals. A variation of this statement for Filter (set theory), filters on sets is known as the ultrafilter lemma. Other theorems are obtained by considering different mathematical structures with appropriate notions of ideals, for example, Ring (mathematics), rings and prime ideals (of ring theory), or distributive lattices and ''maximal'' ideals (of order theory). This article focuses on prime ideal theorems from order theory. Although the various prime ideal theorems may appear simple and intuitive, they cannot be deduced in general from the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory without the axiom of choice (abbreviated ZF). Instead, some of the statements turn out to be equivalent to the axiom of choice (AC), while others—the Boolean prime ideal theorem, for instance—represent ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Almost Everywhere
In measure theory (a branch of mathematical analysis), a property holds almost everywhere if, in a technical sense, the set for which the property holds takes up nearly all possibilities. The notion of "almost everywhere" is a companion notion to the concept of measure zero, and is analogous to the notion of ''almost surely'' in probability theory. More specifically, a property holds almost everywhere if it holds for all elements in a set except a subset of measure zero, or equivalently, if the set of elements for which the property holds is conull. In cases where the measure is not complete, it is sufficient that the set be contained within a set of measure zero. When discussing sets of real numbers, the Lebesgue measure is usually assumed unless otherwise stated. The term ''almost everywhere'' is abbreviated ''a.e.''; in older literature ''p.p.'' is used, to stand for the equivalent French language phrase ''presque partout''. A set with full measure is one whose complement i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Filter (mathematics)
In mathematics, a filter or order filter is a special subset of a partially ordered set (poset). Filters appear in order and lattice theory, but can also be found in topology, from which they originate. The dual notion of a filter is an order ideal. Filters on sets were introduced by Henri Cartan in 1937 and as described in the article dedicated to filters in topology, they were subsequently used by Nicolas Bourbaki in their book ''Topologie Générale'' as an alternative to the related notion of a net developed in 1922 by E. H. Moore and Herman L. Smith. Order filters are generalizations of this notion from sets to the more general setting of partially ordered sets. For information on order filters in the special case where the poset consists of the power set ordered by set inclusion, see the article Filter (set theory). Motivation 1. Intuitively, a filter in a partially ordered set (), P, is a subset of P that includes as members those elements that are large enoug ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Proper Filter
In mathematics, a filter or order filter is a special subset of a partially ordered set (poset). Filters appear in order and lattice theory, but can also be found in topology, from which they originate. The dual notion of a filter is an order ideal. Filters on sets were introduced by Henri Cartan in 1937 and as described in the article dedicated to filters in topology, they were subsequently used by Nicolas Bourbaki in their book ''Topologie Générale'' as an alternative to the related notion of a net developed in 1922 by E. H. Moore and Herman L. Smith. Order filters are generalizations of this notion from sets to the more general setting of partially ordered sets. For information on order filters in the special case where the poset consists of the power set ordered by set inclusion, see the article Filter (set theory). Motivation 1. Intuitively, a filter in a partially ordered set (), P, is a subset of P that includes as members those elements that are large enough to sa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Algebra (structure)
In abstract algebra, a Boolean algebra or Boolean lattice is a complemented distributive lattice. This type of algebraic structure captures essential properties of both set operations and logic operations. A Boolean algebra can be seen as a generalization of a power set algebra or a field of sets, or its elements can be viewed as generalized truth values. It is also a special case of a De Morgan algebra and a Kleene algebra (with involution). Every Boolean algebra gives rise to a Boolean ring, and vice versa, with ring multiplication corresponding to conjunction or meet ∧, and ring addition to exclusive disjunction or symmetric difference (not disjunction ∨). However, the theory of Boolean rings has an inherent asymmetry between the two operators, while the axioms and theorems of Boolean algebra express the symmetry of the theory described by the duality principle. __TOC__ History The term "Boolean algebra" honors George Boole (1815–1864), a selfeducated English ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fréchet Filter
In mathematics, the Fréchet filter, also called the cofinite filter, on a set X is a certain collection of subsets of X (that is, it is a particular subset of the power set of X). A subset F of X belongs to the Fréchet filter if and only if the complement of F in X is finite. Any such set F is said to be , which is why it is alternatively called the ''cofinite filter'' on X. The Fréchet filter is of interest in topology, where filters originated, and relates to order and lattice theory because a set's power set is a partially ordered set under set inclusion (more specifically, it forms a lattice). The Fréchet filter is named after the French mathematician Maurice Fréchet (18781973), who worked in topology. Definition A subset A of a set X is said to be cofinite in X if its complement in X (that is, the set X \setminus A) is finite. If the empty set is allowed to be in a filter, the Fréchet filter on X, denoted by F. is the set of all cofinite subsets of X. That is: F ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Model Theory
In mathematical logic, model theory is the study of the relationship between formal theories (a collection of sentences in a formal language expressing statements about a mathematical structure), and their models (those structures in which the statements of the theory hold). The aspects investigated include the number and size of models of a theory, the relationship of different models to each other, and their interaction with the formal language itself. In particular, model theorists also investigate the sets that can be defined in a model of a theory, and the relationship of such definable sets to each other. As a separate discipline, model theory goes back to Alfred Tarski, who first used the term "Theory of Models" in publication in 1954. Since the 1970s, the subject has been shaped decisively by Saharon Shelah's stability theory. Compared to other areas of mathematical logic such as proof theory, model theory is often less concerned with formal rigour and closer in spirit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Intersection Property
In general topology, a branch of mathematics, a nonempty family ''A'' of subsets of a set X is said to have the finite intersection property (FIP) if the intersection over any finite subcollection of A is nonempty. It has the strong finite intersection property (SFIP) if the intersection over any finite subcollection of A is infinite. Sets with the finite intersection property are also called centered systems and filter subbases. The finite intersection property can be used to reformulate topological compactness in terms of closed sets; this is its most prominent application. Other applications include proving that certain perfect sets are uncountable, and the construction of ultrafilters. Definition Let X be a set and \mathcal a nonempty family of subsets of that is, \mathcal is a subset of the power set of Then \mathcal is said to have the finite intersection property if every nonempty finite subfamily has nonempty intersection; it is said to have the strong f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 