Trapezius Muscles
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Trapezius Muscles
The trapezius is a large paired trapezoid-shaped surface muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae of the spine and laterally to the spine of the scapula. It moves the scapula and supports the arm. The trapezius has three functional parts: an upper (descending) part which supports the weight of the arm; a middle region (transverse), which retracts the scapula; and a lower (ascending) part which medially rotates and depresses the scapula. Name and history The trapezius muscle resembles a trapezium, also known as a trapezoid, or diamond-shaped quadrilateral. The word "spinotrapezius" refers to the human trapezius, although it is not commonly used in modern texts. In other mammals, it refers to a portion of the analogous muscle. Similarly, the term "tri-axle back plate" was historically used to describe the trapezius muscle. Structure The ''superior'' or ''upper'' (or descending) fibers of the trapezius originate from the ...
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Human Back
The human back, also called the dorsum, is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck. It is the surface of the body opposite from the chest and the abdomen. The vertebral column runs the length of the back and creates a central area of recession. The breadth of the back is created by the shoulders at the top and the pelvis at the bottom. Back pain is a common medical condition, generally benign in origin. Structure The central feature of the human back is the vertebral column, specifically the length from the top of the thoracic vertebrae to the bottom of the lumbar vertebrae, which houses the spinal cord in its spinal canal, and which generally has some curvature that gives shape to the back. The ribcage extends from the spine at the top of the back (with the top of the ribcage corresponding to the T1 vertebra), more than halfway down the length of the back, leaving an area with less protection between the bot ...
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Trapezoid
A quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is called a trapezoid () in American and Canadian English. In British and other forms of English, it is called a trapezium (). A trapezoid is necessarily a convex quadrilateral in Euclidean geometry. The parallel sides are called the ''bases'' of the trapezoid. The other two sides are called the ''legs'' (or the ''lateral sides'') if they are not parallel; otherwise, the trapezoid is a parallelogram, and there are two pairs of bases). A ''scalene trapezoid'' is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, in contrast with the special cases below. Etymology and ''trapezium'' versus ''trapezoid'' Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid defined five types of quadrilateral, of which four had two sets of parallel sides (known in English as square, rectangle, rhombus and rhomboid) and the last did not have two sets of parallel sides – a τραπέζια (''trapezia'' literally "a table", itself from τετράς (''tetrás'' ...
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Sternocleidomastoid
The sternocleidomastoid muscle is one of the largest and most superficial cervical muscles. The primary actions of the muscle are rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion of the neck. The sternocleidomastoid is innervated by the accessory nerve. Etymology and location It is given the name ''sternocleidomastoid'' because it originates at the manubrium of the sternum (''sterno-'') and the clavicle (''cleido-'') and has an insertion at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull. Structure The sternocleidomastoid muscle originates from two locations: the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle. It travels obliquely across the side of the neck and inserts at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull by a thin aponeurosis. The sternocleidomastoid is thick and narrow at its centre, and broader and thinner at either end. The sternal head is a round fasciculus, tendinous in front, fleshy behind, arising from the upper part of the front of the ma ...
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Epimysia
Epimysium (plural ''epimysia'') (Greek ''epi-'' for on, upon, or above + Greek ''mys'' for muscle) is the fibrous tissue envelope that surrounds skeletal muscle. It is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue which ensheaths the entire muscle and protects muscles from friction against other muscles and bones. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium and perimysium. It is also continuous with tendons, where it becomes thicker and collagenous. While the epimysium is irregular on muscles, it is regular on tendons. See also *Endomysium The endomysium, meaning ''within the muscle'', is a wispy layer of areolar connective tissue that ensheaths each individual muscle fiber, or muscle cell. It also contains capillaries and nerves. It overlies the muscle fiber's cell membrane: th ... * Perimysium References Soft tissue Muscular system {{muscle-stub ...
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Aponeurosis
An aponeurosis (; plural: ''aponeuroses'') is a type or a variant of the deep fascia, in the form of a sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that attaches sheet-like muscles needing a wide area of attachment. Their primary function is to join muscles and the body parts they act upon, whether bone or other muscles. They have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, and are very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. When dissected, aponeuroses are papery and peel off by sections. The primary regions with thick aponeuroses are in the ventral abdominal region, the dorsal lumbar region, the ventriculus in birds, and the palmar (palms) and plantar (soles) regions. Anatomy Anterior abdominal aponeuroses The anterior abdominal aponeuroses are located just superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle. It has for its borders the external oblique, pectoralis muscles, and the latissimus dorsi. Posterior lumbar aponeuroses The posterior lumbar aponeu ...
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Spine Of The Scapula
The spine of the scapula or scapular spine is a prominent plate of bone, which crosses obliquely the medial four-fifths of the scapula at its upper part, and separates the supra- from the infraspinatous fossa. Structure It begins at the vertical ertebral or medial borderborder by a smooth, triangular area over which the tendon of insertion of the lower part of the Trapezius glides, and, gradually becoming more elevated, ends in the acromion, which overhangs the shoulder-joint. The spine is triangular, and flattened from above downward, its apex being directed toward the vertebral border. Root The ''root of the spine'' of the scapula is the most medial part of the scapular spine. It is termed "triangular area of the spine of scapula", based on its triangular shape giving it distinguishable visible shape on x-ray images. The root of the spine is on a level with the tip of the spinous process of the third thoracic vertebra.Gray's Anatomy (1918)p.1306/ref> File:Root of spine - ...
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Acromion
In human anatomy, the acromion (from Greek: ''akros'', "highest", ''ōmos'', "shoulder", plural: acromia) is a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade). Together with the coracoid process it extends laterally over the shoulder joint. The acromion is a continuation of the scapular spine, and hooks over anteriorly. It articulates with the clavicle (collar bone) to form the acromioclavicular joint. Structure The acromion forms the summit of the shoulder, and is a large, somewhat triangular or oblong process, flattened from behind forward, projecting at first lateralward, and then curving forward and upward, so as to overhang the glenoid fossa.'' Gray's Anatomy'' 1918, see infobox It starts from the base of acromion which marks its projecting point emerging from the spine of scapula. Surfaces Its superior surface, directed upward, backward, and lateralward, is convex, rough, and gives attachment to some fibers of the deltoideus, and in the rest of its extent is subcutaneo ...
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Ligamentum Nuchae
The nuchal ligament is a ligament at the back of the neck that is continuous with the supraspinous ligament. Structure The nuchal ligament extends from the external occipital protuberance on the skull and median nuchal line to the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra in the lower part of the neck. From the anterior border of the nuchal ligament, a fibrous lamina is given off. This is attached to the posterior tubercle of the atlas, and to the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae, and forms a septum between the muscles on either side of the neck. The trapezius and splenius capitis muscle attach to the nuchal ligament. Function It is a tendon-like structure that has developed independently in humans and other animals well adapted for running. In some four-legged animals, particularly ungulates, the nuchal ligament serves to sustain the weight of the head. Clinical significance In Chiari malformation treatment, decompression and duraplasty with a harvest ...
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Superior Nuchal Line
The nuchal lines are four curved lines on the external surface of the occipital bone: * The upper, often faintly marked, is named the highest nuchal line, but is sometimes referred to as the Mempin line or linea suprema, and it attaches to the epicranial aponeurosis. * Below the highest nuchal line is the superior nuchal line. To it is attached, the splenius capitis muscle, the trapezius muscle, and the occipitalis. * From the external occipital protuberance a ridge or crest, the external occipital crest also called the median nuchal line, often faintly marked, descends to the foramen magnum The foramen magnum ( la, great hole) is a large, oval-shaped opening in the occipital bone of the skull. It is one of the several oval or circular openings (foramina) in the base of the skull. The spinal cord, an extension of the medulla oblon ..., and affords attachment to the nuchal ligament. * Running from the middle of this line is the inferior nuchal line. Attached are the obliquus c ...
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Trapezius Animation Small2
The trapezius is a large paired trapezoid-shaped surface muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae of the spine and laterally to the spine of the scapula. It moves the scapula and supports the arm. The trapezius has three functional parts: an upper (descending) part which supports the weight of the arm; a middle region (transverse), which retracts the scapula; and a lower (ascending) part which medially rotates and depresses the scapula. Name and history The trapezius muscle resembles a trapezium, also known as a trapezoid, or diamond-shaped quadrilateral. The word "spinotrapezius" refers to the human trapezius, although it is not commonly used in modern texts. In other mammals, it refers to a portion of the analogous muscle. Similarly, the term "tri-axle back plate" was historically used to describe the trapezius muscle. Structure The ''superior'' or ''upper'' (or descending) fibers of the trapezius originate from the s ...
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Quadrilateral
In geometry a quadrilateral is a four-sided polygon, having four edges (sides) and four corners (vertices). The word is derived from the Latin words ''quadri'', a variant of four, and ''latus'', meaning "side". It is also called a tetragon, derived from greek "tetra" meaning "four" and "gon" meaning "corner" or "angle", in analogy to other polygons (e.g. pentagon). Since "gon" means "angle", it is analogously called a quadrangle, or 4-angle. A quadrilateral with vertices A, B, C and D is sometimes denoted as \square ABCD. Quadrilaterals are either simple (not self-intersecting), or complex (self-intersecting, or crossed). Simple quadrilaterals are either convex or concave. The interior angles of a simple (and planar) quadrilateral ''ABCD'' add up to 360 degrees of arc, that is :\angle A+\angle B+\angle C+\angle D=360^. This is a special case of the ''n''-gon interior angle sum formula: ''S'' = (''n'' − 2) × 180°. All non-self-crossing quadrilaterals tile the plan ...
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Human Spine
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. Individual vertebrae are named according to their region and position, and can be used as anatomical landmarks in order to guide procedures such as lumbar punctures. The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord. There are about 50,000 species of animals that have a vertebral column. The human vertebral column is one of the most-studied examples. Many different diseases in humans can affect the spine, with spina bifida and scoliosis being recognisable examples. The general structure of human vertebrae is fairly typical of that found in mammals, reptiles, and birds. The shape of the vertebra ...
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