Threevalued Logic
In logic, a threevalued logic (also trinary logic, trivalent, ternary, or trilean, sometimes abbreviated 3VL) is any of several manyvalued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating ''true'', ''false'' and some indeterminate third value. This is contrasted with the more commonly known bivalent logics (such as classical sentential or Boolean logic) which provide only for ''true'' and ''false''. Emil Leon Post is credited with first introducing additional logical truth degrees in his 1921 theory of elementary propositions. The conceptual form and basic ideas of threevalued logic were initially published by Jan Łukasiewicz and Clarence Irving Lewis. These were then reformulated by Grigore Constantin Moisil in an axiomatic algebraic form, and also extended to ''n''valued logics in 1945. Prediscovery Around 1910, Charles Sanders Peirce defined a manyvalued logic system. He never published it. In fact, he did not even number the three pages of notes where ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logic
Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from premises in a topicneutral way. When used as a countable noun, the term "a logic" refers to a logical formal system that articulates a proof system. Formal logic contrasts with informal logic, which is associated with informal fallacies, critical thinking, and argumentation theory. While there is no general agreement on how formal and informal logic are to be distinguished, one prominent approach associates their difference with whether the studied arguments are expressed in formal or informal languages. Logic plays a central role in multiple fields, such as philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics. Logic studies arguments, which consist of a set of premises together with a conclusion. Premises and conclusions are usually un ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Undecidable Problem
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is proved to be impossible to construct an algorithm that always leads to a correct yesorno answer. The halting problem is an example: it can be proven that there is no algorithm that correctly determines whether arbitrary programs eventually halt when run. Background A decision problem is any arbitrary yesorno question on an infinite set of inputs. Because of this, it is traditional to define the decision problem equivalently as the set of inputs for which the problem returns ''yes''. These inputs can be natural numbers, but also other values of some other kind, such as strings of a formal language. Using some encoding, such as a Gödel numbering, the strings can be encoded as natural numbers. Thus, a decision problem informally phrased in terms of a formal language is also equivalent to a set of natural numbers. To keep the formal definition simple, it is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Or (logic)
In logic, disjunction is a logical connective typically notated as \lor and read aloud as "or". For instance, the English language sentence "it is raining or it is snowing" can be represented in logic using the disjunctive formula R \lor S , assuming that R abbreviates "it is raining" and S abbreviates "it is snowing". In classical logic, disjunction is given a truth functional semantics according to which a formula \phi \lor \psi is true unless both \phi and \psi are false. Because this semantics allows a disjunctive formula to be true when both of its disjuncts are true, it is an ''inclusive'' interpretation of disjunction, in contrast with exclusive disjunction. Classical proof theoretical treatments are often given in terms of rules such as disjunction introduction and disjunction elimination. Disjunction has also been given numerous nonclassical treatments, motivated by problems including Aristotle's sea battle argument, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, as well ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical NAND
In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both". It is also called nand ("not and") or the alternative denial, since it says in effect that at least one of its operands is false. In digital electronics, it corresponds to the NAND gate. It is named after Henry M. Sheffer and written as ↑ or as , (but not as , , , often used to represent disjunction). In Bocheński notation it can be written as D''pq''. Its dual is the NOR operator (also known as the Peirce arrow or Quine dagger). Like its dual, NAND can be used by itself, without any other logical operator, to constitute a logical formal system (making NAND functionally complete). This property makes the NAND gate crucial to modern digital electronics, including its use in computer processor design. Definition The NAND operation is a logical operation on two logi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

And (logic)
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (\wedge) is the truthfunctional operator of logical conjunction; the ''and'' of a set of operands is true if and only if ''all'' of its operands are true. The logical connective that represents this operator is typically written as \wedge or . A \land B is true if and only if A is true and B is true, otherwise it is false. An operand of a conjunction is a conjunct. Beyond logic, the term "conjunction" also refers to similar concepts in other fields: * In natural language, the denotation of expressions such as English "and". * In programming languages, the shortcircuit and control structure. * In set theory, intersection. * In lattice theory, logical conjunction (greatest lower bound). * In predicate logic, universal quantification. Notation And is usually denoted by an infix operator: in mathematics and logic, it is denoted by \wedge, or ; in electronics, ; and in programming languages, &, &&, or and. In Jan Łuk ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Not (logic)
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P, \mathord P or \overline. It is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true. Negation is thus a unary logical connective. It may be applied as an operation on notions, propositions, truth values, or semantic values more generally. In classical logic, negation is normally identified with the truth function that takes ''truth'' to ''falsity'' (and vice versa). In intuitionistic logic, according to the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation, the negation of a proposition P is the proposition whose proofs are the refutations of P. Definition ''Classical negation'' is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of ''true'' when its operand is false, and a value of ''false'' when its operand is true. Thus if statement is true, then \neg P (pro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unary Operator
In mathematics, an unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input. This is in contrast to binary operations, which use two operands. An example is any function , where is a set. The function is a unary operation on . Common notations are prefix notation (e.g. ¬, −), postfix notation (e.g. factorial ), functional notation (e.g. or ), and superscripts (e.g. transpose ). Other notations exist as well, for example, in the case of the square root, a horizontal bar extending the square root sign over the argument can indicate the extent of the argument. Examples Unary negative and positive As unary operations have only one operand they are evaluated before other operations containing them. Here is an example using negation: :3 − −2 Here, the first '−' represents the binary subtraction operation, while the second '−' represents the unary negation of the 2 (or '−2' could be taken to mean the integer −2). Therefore, the expression is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantifier (logic)
In logic, a quantifier is an operator that specifies how many individuals in the domain of discourse satisfy an open formula. For instance, the universal quantifier \forall in the first order formula \forall x P(x) expresses that everything in the domain satisfies the property denoted by P. On the other hand, the existential quantifier \exists in the formula \exists x P(x) expresses that there exists something in the domain which satisfies that property. A formula where a quantifier takes widest scope is called a quantified formula. A quantified formula must contain a bound variable and a subformula specifying a property of the referent of that variable. The mostly commonly used quantifiers are \forall and \exists. These quantifiers are standardly defined as duals; in classical logic, they are interdefinable using negation. They can also be used to define more complex quantifiers, as in the formula \neg \exists x P(x) which expresses that nothing has the property P. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Predicate Logic
Firstorder logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and firstorder predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. Firstorder logic uses quantified variables over nonlogical objects, and allows the use of sentences that contain variables, so that rather than propositions such as "Socrates is a man", one can have expressions in the form "there exists x such that x is Socrates and x is a man", where "there exists''"'' is a quantifier, while ''x'' is a variable. This distinguishes it from propositional logic, which does not use quantifiers or relations; in this sense, propositional logic is the foundation of firstorder logic. A theory about a topic is usually a firstorder logic together with a specified domain of discourse (over which the quantified variables range), finitely many functions from that domain to itself, finitely many predicates defined on that domain, and a set of ax ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Connectives
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a logical constant. They can be used to connect logical formulas. For instance in the syntax of propositional logic, the binary connective \lor can be used to join the two atomic formulas P and Q, rendering the complex formula P \lor Q . Common connectives include negation, disjunction, conjunction, and implication. In standard systems of classical logic, these connectives are interpreted as truth functions, though they receive a variety of alternative interpretations in nonclassical logics. Their classical interpretations are similar to the meanings of natural language expressions such as English "not", "or", "and", and "if", but not identical. Discrepancies between natural language connectives and those of classical logic have motivated nonclassical approaches to natural language meaning as well as approaches which pair a classical compositional semantics wi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Propositional Logic
Propositional calculus is a branch of logic. It is also called propositional logic, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zerothorder logic. It deals with propositions (which can be true or false) and relations between propositions, including the construction of arguments based on them. Compound propositions are formed by connecting propositions by logical connectives. Propositions that contain no logical connectives are called atomic propositions. Unlike firstorder logic, propositional logic does not deal with nonlogical objects, predicates about them, or quantifiers. However, all the machinery of propositional logic is included in firstorder logic and higherorder logics. In this sense, propositional logic is the foundation of firstorder logic and higherorder logic. Explanation Logical connectives are found in natural languages. In English for example, some examples are "and" (conjunction), "or" (disjunction), "not" (negation) and "if" ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ternary Signal
In telecommunication, a ternary signal is a signal that can assume, at any given instant, one of three states or significant conditions, such as power level, phase position, pulse duration, or frequency. Examples of ternary signals are (a) a pulse that can have a positive, zero, or negative voltage value at any given instant ( PAM3), (b) a sine wave that can assume phases of 0°, 120°, or 240° relative to a clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units such as the day, the lunar month and the ... pulse (3phaseshift keying, PSK), and (c) a carrier signal that can assume any one of three different frequencies depending on three different modulation signal significant conditions (3frequency modulation, FM). Some examples of PAM3 line codes that use ternary signals are: * hybrid ternary code * bipolar encoding * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 