Tax Advice
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Tax Advice
A tax advisor or tax consultant is a person with advanced training and knowledge of tax law. The services of a tax advisor are usually retained in order to minimize taxation while remaining compliant with the law in complicated financial situations. Tax Advisors are also retained to represent clients before tax authorities and tax courts to resolve tax issues. Money Austria In Austria, Steuerberater is the professional license for tax advisors. Germany In Germany, Steuerberater is the professional license for tax advisors. Italy In Italy, tax advisors are called ''commercialisti'', and provide assistance on business management, business law, economics, finance, tax, accounting, commercial, corporate and administrative matters. ''Dottori commercialisti'', who have a degree in economics, and ''ragionieri commercialisti'', who have a specific high school diploma, were members of two different professional orders, but they were merged in 2008 into the Ordine dei Dottori Commerci ...
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Tax Law
Tax law or revenue law is an area of legal study in which public or sanctioned authorities, such as federal, state and municipal governments (as in the case of the US) use a body of rules and procedures (laws) to assess and collect taxes in a legal context. The rates and merits of the various taxes, imposed by the authorities, are attained via the political process inherent in these bodies of power, and not directly attributable to the actual domain of tax law itself. Tax law is part of public law. It covers the application of existing tax laws on individuals, entities and corporations, in areas where tax revenue is derived or levied, e.g. income tax, estate tax, business tax, employment/payroll tax, property tax, gift tax and exports/imports tax. There have been some arguments that consumer law is a better way to engage in large-scale redistribution than tax law because it does not necessitate legislation and can be more efficient, given the complexities of tax law. Major i ...
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Financial Accounts
Financial accounting is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions related to a business. This involves the preparation of financial statements available for public use. Stockholders, suppliers, banks, employees, government agencies, business owners, and other stakeholders are examples of people interested in receiving such information for decision making purposes. Financial accountancy is governed by both local and international accounting standards. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction. It includes the standards, conventions and rules that accountants follow in recording and summarizing and in the preparation of financial statements. On the other hand, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a set of accounting standards stating how particular types of transactions and other events should be repo ...
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Association Of Chartered Certified Accountants
Founded in 1904, the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) is the global professional accounting body offering the Chartered Certified Accountant qualification (ACCA). It has 240,952 members and 541,930 future members worldwide. ACCA's headquarters are in London with principal administrative office in Glasgow. ACCA works through a network of over 110 offices and centres in 51 countries - with 346 Approved Learning Partners (ALP) and more than 7,600 Approved Employers worldwide, who provide employee development. The term 'Chartered' in ACCA qualification refers to the Royal Charter granted in 1974. 'Chartered Certified Accountant' is a legally protected term. Individuals who describe themselves as Chartered Certified Accountants must be members of ACCA and if they carry out public practice engagements, must comply with additional regulations such as holding a practising certificate, carrying liability insurance and submitting to inspections. The Association ...
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Institute Of Chartered Accountants Of Scotland
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS) is the world's first professional body of Chartered Accountants (CAs). It is a regulator, educator, influencer and thought leader. ICAS act as a thought leader and voice of the professional business community. Although other British accounting bodies use the title Chartered Accountant, the CA designation is unique to ICAS in the UK. ICAS has more than 21,000 members and students worldwide. ICAS provides support, advice and services to its CAs throughout their professional lives. ICAS members are business advisors, business leaders and entrepreneurs. They play leading roles in 80% of the FTSE 100 companies. Half of ICAS members are based in Scotland; the other half work in England and around the globe.{{cite web, title=About ICAS, url=http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/s4/committees/eet/inquiries/ScotlandBill/documents/ICAS.pdf, work=Submission from ICAS on Corporation Tax Reform, publisher=Scottish Parliament, access-date ...
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Institute Of Chartered Accountants In England And Wales
The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW) is a professional membership organisation that promotes, develops and supports chartered accountants and students around the world. As of July 2022, it has over 198,000 members and students in 147 countries. ICAEW was established by royal charter in 1880. Overview The institute is a member of the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies (CCAB), formed in 1974 by the major accountancy professional bodies in the UK and Ireland. The fragmented nature of the accountancy profession in the UK is in part due to the absence of any legal requirement for an accountant to be a member of one of the many Institutes, as the term ''accountant'' does not have legal protection. However, a person must belong to ICAEW, ICAS or CAI to hold themselves out as a '' chartered accountant'' in the UK (although there are other chartered bodies of British qualified accountants whose members are likewise authorised to conduct restri ...
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Institute Of Indirect Taxation
The Institute of Indirect Taxation (IIT) was a distinct professional body in the United Kingdom prior to its merger with the Chartered Institute of Taxation in August 2012. Members of the IIT specialised in the study and practice of indirect taxes. The body was formed in July 1991 and formally launched in October 1991. It gained permission to call itself an institute in December of the same year. It operated as a company limited by guarantee. Entry to the Institute was normally gained by taking up to four professional examinations in indirect taxation. There were two routes through the exams, the Value Added Tax route and the customs route, which reflect two of the most major areas that indirect taxation is applied to in the United Kingdom. It was possible to gain exemptions from some of the exams through possessing other suitable qualifications which include those from various British accountancy professional bodies, the Chartered Institute of Taxation and HM Revenue and Custom ...
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Association Of Taxation Technicians
The Association of Taxation Technicians or ATT, is a leading professional body in the UK for those providing tax compliance services and related activities. It is registered with The Charity Commission in the U(803480) The association has over 9,000 members and fellows together with over 5,000 students. Members and fellows use the practising title of 'Taxation Technician' or ‘Taxation Technician (Fellow)’ and the designatory letters 'ATT' and 'ATT (Fellow)' respectively. The ATT is based in London, UK. Although an independent organization, the ATT shares back-office services with the Chartered Institute of Taxation (CIOT). The association is a charity and a leading professional body for those providing UK tax compliance services. Its primary charitable objective is to promote education and the study of tax administration and practice. One of its key aims is to provide an appropriate qualification for individuals who undertake tax compliance work. It contributes to consultatio ...
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Chartered Institute Of Taxation
The Chartered Institute of Taxation (CIOT) is a registered charity (number 1037771) and the leading professional body in the United Kingdom concerned solely with taxation. The CIOT deals with all aspects of direct and indirect taxation. Activities and membership The primary purpose of the CIOT is to promote education in and the study of the administration and practice of taxation. One of its key aims is to achieve a better, more efficient, tax system for all affected by it – taxpayers, advisers and the authorities. The CIOT's comments and recommendations on tax issues are made solely in order to achieve its aims: it is entirely apolitical in its work. The CIOT administers and awards two qualifications: the CTA (Chartered Tax Adviser) qualification for domestic tax practitioners in the United Kingdom, and ADIT (the Advanced Diploma in International Taxation) for international tax professionals around the world. Membership is awarded on passing the Institute's CTA examinations ...
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainland, continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many List of islands of the United Kingdom, smaller islands within the British Isles. Northern Ireland shares Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, a land border with the Republic of Ireland; otherwise, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea. The total area of the United Kingdom is , with an estimated 2020 population of more than 67 million people. The United Kingdom has evolved from a series of annexations, unions and separations of constituent countries over several hundred years. The Treaty of Union between ...
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South Korea
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and sharing a land border with North Korea. Its western border is formed by the Yellow Sea, while its eastern border is defined by the Sea of Japan. South Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. It has a population of 51.75 million, of which roughly half live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the world. Other major cities include Incheon, Busan, and Daegu. The Korean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period. Its first kingdom was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea into Silla and Balhae in the late 7th century, Korea was ruled by the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897). The succeeding Korean Empire (1897–1910) was an ...
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Certified Public Accountant
Certified Public Accountant (CPA) is the title of qualified accountants in numerous countries in the English-speaking world. It is generally equivalent to the title of chartered accountant in other English-speaking countries. In the United States, the CPA is a license to provide accounting services to the public. It is awarded by each of the 50 states for practice in that state. Additionally, all states except Hawaii have passed mobility laws to allow CPAs from other states to practice in their state. State licensing requirements vary, but the minimum standard requirements include passing the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination, 150 semester units of college education, and one year of accounting-related experience. Continuing professional education (CPE) is also required to maintain licensure. Individuals who have been awarded the CPA but have lapsed in the fulfillment of the required CPE or who have requested conversion to inactive status are in many states permitt ...
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Attorney At Law (Japan)
In Japan, form the base of the country's legal community. History Pre-Meiji restoration Historically, Japanese customs instituted an avoidance of legal involvement, based upon Confucian doctrines, and Japanese principles of harmony; anyone brought before a court for a criminal or civil matter suffered public and private humiliation, since they disrupted harmony. Nevertheless, by the 18th century, innkeepers in Edo began offering simple legal services for guests. They were known as ''Kujishi''. By the 19th century, references began to appear in Japanese literature on the role of "European-style" lawyers. Officially recognized legal representatives in civil trials, known as ''daigennin'', began to appear by the mid-19th century. No legal training was required to be a ''daigennin''. Meiji restoration Regulation of legal professionals began during the Meiji Restoration. In 1890, the Criminal Code was amended, which recognized the right to legal representation during a criminal tria ...
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