Symplectic Vector Space
In mathematics, a symplectic vector space is a vector space ''V'' over a field ''F'' (for example the real numbers R) equipped with a symplectic bilinear form. A symplectic bilinear form is a mapping that is ; Bilinear: Linear in each argument separately; ; Alternating: holds for all ; and ; Nondegenerate: for all implies that . If the underlying field has characteristic not 2, alternation is equivalent to skewsymmetry. If the characteristic is 2, the skewsymmetry is implied by, but does not imply alternation. In this case every symplectic form is a symmetric form, but not vice versa. Working in a fixed basis, ''ω'' can be represented by a matrix. The conditions above are equivalent to this matrix being skewsymmetric, nonsingular, and hollow (all diagonal entries are zero). This should not be confused with a symplectic matrix, which represents a symplectic transformation of the space. If ''V'' is finitedimensional, then its dimension must necessarily be even since ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symplectic Matrix
In mathematics, a symplectic matrix is a 2n\times 2n matrix M with real entries that satisfies the condition where M^\text denotes the transpose of M and \Omega is a fixed 2n\times 2n nonsingular, skewsymmetric matrix. This definition can be extended to 2n\times 2n matrices with entries in other fields, such as the complex numbers, finite fields, ''p''adic numbers, and function fields. Typically \Omega is chosen to be the block matrix \Omega = \begin 0 & I_n \\ I_n & 0 \\ \end, where I_n is the n\times n identity matrix. The matrix \Omega has determinant +1 and its inverse is \Omega^ = \Omega^\text = \Omega. Properties Generators for symplectic matrices Every symplectic matrix has determinant +1, and the 2n\times 2n symplectic matrices with real entries form a subgroup of the general linear group \mathrm(2n;\mathbb) under matrix multiplication since being symplectic is a property stable under matrix multiplication. Topologically, this symplectic group is a connected ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tangent Bundle
In differential geometry, the tangent bundle of a differentiable manifold M is a manifold TM which assembles all the tangent vectors in M . As a set, it is given by the disjoint unionThe disjoint union ensures that for any two points and of manifold the tangent spaces and have no common vector. This is graphically illustrated in the accompanying picture for tangent bundle of circle , see tangent bundle#Examples, Examples section: all tangents to a circle lie in the plane of the circle. In order to make them disjoint it is necessary to align them in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the circle. of the tangent spaces of M . That is, : \begin TM &= \bigsqcup_ T_xM \\ &= \bigcup_ \left\ \times T_xM \\ &= \bigcup_ \left\ \\ &= \left\ \end where T_x M denotes the tangent space to M at the point x . So, an element of TM can be thought of as a ordered pair, pair (x,v), where x is a point in M and v is a tangent vector to M at x . There i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Complex Structure
In mathematics, a complex structure on a real vector space ''V'' is an automorphism of ''V'' that squares to the minus identity, −''I''. Such a structure on ''V'' allows one to define multiplication by complex scalars in a canonical fashion so as to regard ''V'' as a complex vector space. Every complex vector space can be equipped with a compatible complex structure, however, there is in general no canonical such structure. Complex structures have applications in representation theory as well as in complex geometry where they play an essential role in the definition of almost complex manifolds, by contrast to complex manifolds. The term "complex structure" often refers to this structure on manifolds; when it refers instead to a structure on vector spaces, it may be called a linear complex structure. Definition and properties A complex structure on a real vector space ''V'' is a real linear transformation :J :V \to V such that :J^2 = \mathrm_V. Here means composed with its ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Basis (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, a set of vectors in a vector space is called a basis if every element of may be written in a unique way as a finite linear combination of elements of . The coefficients of this linear combination are referred to as components or coordinates of the vector with respect to . The elements of a basis are called . Equivalently, a set is a basis if its elements are linearly independent and every element of is a linear combination of elements of . In other words, a basis is a linearly independent spanning set. A vector space can have several bases; however all the bases have the same number of elements, called the ''dimension'' of the vector space. This article deals mainly with finitedimensional vector spaces. However, many of the principles are also valid for infinitedimensional vector spaces. Definition A basis of a vector space over a field (such as the real numbers or the complex numbers ) is a linearly independent subset of that spans . This me ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Sum Of Vector Spaces
In abstract algebra, the direct sum is a construction which combines several modules into a new, larger module. The direct sum of modules is the smallest module which contains the given modules as submodules with no "unnecessary" constraints, making it an example of a coproduct. Contrast with the direct product, which is the dual notion. The most familiar examples of this construction occur when considering vector spaces (modules over a field) and abelian groups (modules over the ring Z of integers). The construction may also be extended to cover Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces. See the article decomposition of a module for a way to write a module as a direct sum of submodules. Construction for vector spaces and abelian groups We give the construction first in these two cases, under the assumption that we have only two objects. Then we generalize to an arbitrary family of arbitrary modules. The key elements of the general construction are more clearly identified by conside ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dual Space
In mathematics, any vector space ''V'' has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear forms on ''V'', together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants. The dual space as defined above is defined for all vector spaces, and to avoid ambiguity may also be called the . When defined for a topological vector space, there is a subspace of the dual space, corresponding to continuous linear functionals, called the ''continuous dual space''. Dual vector spaces find application in many branches of mathematics that use vector spaces, such as in tensor analysis with finitedimensional vector spaces. When applied to vector spaces of functions (which are typically infinitedimensional), dual spaces are used to describe measures, distributions, and Hilbert spaces. Consequently, the dual space is an important concept in functional analysis. Early terms for ''dual'' include ''polarer Raum'' ahn 1 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symplectic Basis
In linear algebra, a standard symplectic basis is a basis _i, _i of a symplectic vector space, which is a vector space with a nondegenerate alternating bilinear form \omega, such that \omega(_i, _j) = 0 = \omega(_i, _j), \omega(_i, _j) = \delta_. A symplectic basis of a symplectic vector space always exists; it can be constructed by a procedure similar to the Gram–Schmidt process.Maurice de Gosson: ''Symplectic Geometry and Quantum Mechanics'' (2006), p.7 and pp. 12–13 The existence of the basis implies in particular that the dimension of a symplectic vector space is even if it is finite. See also *Darboux theorem * Symplectic frame bundle * Symplectic spinor bundle *Symplectic vector space In mathematics, a symplectic vector space is a vector space ''V'' over a field ''F'' (for example the real numbers R) equipped with a symplectic bilinear form. A symplectic bilinear form is a mapping that is ; Bilinear: Linear in each argument s ... Notes References *da Silva, A.C., ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gram–Schmidt Process
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and numerical analysis, the Gram–Schmidt process is a method for orthonormalizing a set of vectors in an inner product space, most commonly the Euclidean space equipped with the standard inner product. The Gram–Schmidt process takes a finite, linearly independent set of vectors for and generates an orthogonal set that spans the same ''k''dimensional subspace of R''n'' as ''S''. The method is named after Jørgen Pedersen Gram and Erhard Schmidt, but PierreSimon Laplace had been familiar with it before Gram and Schmidt. In the theory of Lie group decompositions it is generalized by the Iwasawa decomposition. The application of the Gram–Schmidt process to the column vectors of a full column rank matrix yields the QR decomposition (it is decomposed into an orthogonal and a triangular matrix). The Gram–Schmidt process We define the projection operator by \operatorname_ (\mathbf) = \frac , where \langle \mathbf, \mat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Matrix
In linear algebra, the identity matrix of size n is the n\times n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. Terminology and notation The identity matrix is often denoted by I_n, or simply by I if the size is immaterial or can be trivially determined by the context. I_1 = \begin 1 \end ,\ I_2 = \begin 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end ,\ I_3 = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end ,\ \dots ,\ I_n = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \end. The term unit matrix has also been widely used, but the term ''identity matrix'' is now standard. The term ''unit matrix'' is ambiguous, because it is also used for a matrix of ones and for any unit of the ring of all n\times n matrices. In some fields, such as group theory or quantum mechanics, the identity matrix is sometimes denoted by a boldface one, \mathbf, or called "id" (short for identity). ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Block Matrix
In mathematics, a block matrix or a partitioned matrix is a matrix that is '' interpreted'' as having been broken into sections called blocks or submatrices. Intuitively, a matrix interpreted as a block matrix can be visualized as the original matrix with a collection of horizontal and vertical lines, which break it up, or partition it, into a collection of smaller matrices. Any matrix may be interpreted as a block matrix in one or more ways, with each interpretation defined by how its rows and columns are partitioned. This notion can be made more precise for an n by m matrix M by partitioning n into a collection \text, and then partitioning m into a collection \text. The original matrix is then considered as the "total" of these groups, in the sense that the (i, j) entry of the original matrix corresponds in a 1to1 way with some (s, t) offset entry of some (x,y), where x \in \text and y \in \text. Block matrix algebra arises in general from biproducts in categories of matrices ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 