Sup Norm
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Sup Norm
In mathematical analysis, the uniform norm (or ) assigns to real- or complex-valued bounded functions defined on a set the non-negative number :\, f\, _\infty = \, f\, _ = \sup\left\. This norm is also called the , the , the , or, when the supremum is in fact the maximum, the . The name "uniform norm" derives from the fact that a sequence of functions converges to under the metric derived from the uniform norm if and only if converges to uniformly. If is a continuous function on a closed and bounded interval, or more generally a compact set, then it is bounded and the supremum in the above definition is attained by the Weierstrass extreme value theorem, so we can replace the supremum by the maximum. In this case, the norm is also called the . In particular, if is some vector such that x = \left(x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n\right) in finite dimensional coordinate space, it takes the form: :\, x\, _\infty := \max \left(\left, x_1\ , \ldots , \left, x_n\\right). Metric and ...
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Vector Norm Sup
Vector most often refers to: *Euclidean vector, a quantity with a magnitude and a direction *Vector (epidemiology), an agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism Vector may also refer to: Mathematics and physics *Vector (mathematics and physics) **Row and column vectors, single row or column matrices **Vector space ** Vector field, a vector for each point Molecular biology *Vector (molecular biology), a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell ** Cloning vector, a small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes ** Shuttle vector, a plasmid constructed so that it can propagate in two different host species ** Viral vector, a tool commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic materials into cells Computer science *Vector, a one-dimensional array data structure **Distance-vector routing protocol, a class of routing protocols **D ...
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Extreme Value Theorem
In calculus, the extreme value theorem states that if a real-valued function f is continuous on the closed interval ,b/math>, then f must attain a maximum and a minimum, each at least once. That is, there exist numbers c and d in ,b/math> such that: f(c) \ge f(x) \ge f(d)\quad \forall x\in ,b/math> The extreme value theorem is more specific than the related boundedness theorem, which states merely that a continuous function f on the closed interval ,b/math> is bounded on that interval; that is, there exist real numbers m and M such that: m \le f(x) \le M\quad \forall x \in , b This does not say that M and m are necessarily the maximum and minimum values of f on the interval ,b which is what the extreme value theorem stipulates must also be the case. The extreme value theorem is used to prove Rolle's theorem. In a formulation due to Karl Weierstrass, this theorem states that a continuous function from a non-empty compact space to a subset of the real numbers attains ...
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Functional Analysis
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations. The usage of the word '' functional'' as a noun goes back to the calculus of variations, implying a function whose argument is a function. The term was first used in Hadamard's 1910 book on that subject. However, the general concept of a functional had previously been introduced in 1887 by the I ...
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Banach Spaces
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well-defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. Maurice René Fréchet was the first to use the term "Banach space" and Banach in turn then coined the term " Fréchet space." Banach spaces originally grew out of the study of function spaces by Hilbert, Fréchet, and Riesz earlier in the century. Banach spaces play a central role in functional analysis. In other areas of analysis, the spaces under study are often Banach spaces. Definition A Banach space is a complete n ...
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Discrete Set
] In mathematics, a point ''x'' is called an isolated point of a subset ''S'' (in a topological space ''X'') if ''x'' is an element of ''S'' and there exists a neighborhood of ''x'' which does not contain any other points of ''S''. This is equivalent to saying that the singleton is an open set in the topological space ''S'' (considered as a subspace of ''X''). Another equivalent formulation is: an element ''x'' of ''S'' is an isolated point of ''S'' if and only if it is not a limit point of ''S''. If the space ''X'' is a metric space, for example a Euclidean space, then an element ''x'' of ''S'' is an isolated point of ''S'' if there exists an open ball around ''x'' which contains only finitely many elements of ''S''. Related notions A set that is made up only of isolated points is called a discrete set (see also discrete space). Any discrete subset ''S'' of Euclidean space must be countable, since the isolation of each of its points together with the fact that rationals ...
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Hypercube
In geometry, a hypercube is an ''n''-dimensional analogue of a square () and a cube (). It is a closed, compact, convex figure whose 1-skeleton consists of groups of opposite parallel line segments aligned in each of the space's dimensions, perpendicular to each other and of the same length. A unit hypercube's longest diagonal in ''n'' dimensions is equal to \sqrt. An ''n''-dimensional hypercube is more commonly referred to as an ''n''-cube or sometimes as an ''n''-dimensional cube. The term measure polytope (originally from Elte, 1912) is also used, notably in the work of H. S. M. Coxeter who also labels the hypercubes the γn polytopes. The hypercube is the special case of a hyperrectangle (also called an ''n-orthotope''). A ''unit hypercube'' is a hypercube whose side has length one unit. Often, the hypercube whose corners (or ''vertices'') are the 2''n'' points in R''n'' with each coordinate equal to 0 or 1 is called ''the'' unit hypercube. Construction A hype ...
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C-star Algebra
In mathematics, specifically in functional analysis, a C∗-algebra (pronounced "C-star") is a Banach algebra together with an involution satisfying the properties of the adjoint. A particular case is that of a complex algebra ''A'' of continuous linear operators on a complex Hilbert space with two additional properties: * ''A'' is a topologically closed set in the norm topology of operators. * ''A'' is closed under the operation of taking adjoints of operators. Another important class of non-Hilbert C*-algebras includes the algebra C_0(X) of complex-valued continuous functions on ''X'' that vanish at infinity, where ''X'' is a locally compact Hausdorff space. C*-algebras were first considered primarily for their use in quantum mechanics to model algebras of physical observables. This line of research began with Werner Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and in a more mathematically developed form with Pascual Jordan around 1933. Subsequently, John von Neumann attempted to estab ...
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Continuous Function (topology)
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ...
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Stone–Weierstrass Theorem
In mathematical analysis, the Weierstrass approximation theorem states that every continuous function defined on a closed interval can be uniformly approximated as closely as desired by a polynomial function. Because polynomials are among the simplest functions, and because computers can directly evaluate polynomials, this theorem has both practical and theoretical relevance, especially in polynomial interpolation. The original version of this result was established by Karl Weierstrass in 1885 using the Weierstrass transform. Marshall H. Stone considerably generalized the theorem and simplified the proof . His result is known as the Stone–Weierstrass theorem. The Stone–Weierstrass theorem generalizes the Weierstrass approximation theorem in two directions: instead of the real interval , an arbitrary compact Hausdorff space is considered, and instead of the algebra of polynomial functions, a variety of other families of continuous functions on X are shown to suffice, as ...
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Uniform Convergence
In the mathematical field of analysis, uniform convergence is a mode of convergence of functions stronger than pointwise convergence. A sequence of functions (f_n) converges uniformly to a limiting function f on a set E if, given any arbitrarily small positive number \epsilon, a number N can be found such that each of the functions f_N, f_,f_,\ldots differs from f by no more than \epsilon ''at every point'' x ''in'' E. Described in an informal way, if f_n converges to f uniformly, then the rate at which f_n(x) approaches f(x) is "uniform" throughout its domain in the following sense: in order to guarantee that f_n(x) falls within a certain distance \epsilon of f(x), we do not need to know the value of x\in E in question — there can be found a single value of N=N(\epsilon) ''independent of x'', such that choosing n\geq N will ensure that f_n(x) is within \epsilon of f(x) ''for all x\in E''. In contrast, pointwise convergence of f_n to f merely guarantees that for any x\in E giv ...
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Pafnuty Chebyshev
Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev ( rus, Пафну́тий Льво́вич Чебышёв, p=pɐfˈnutʲɪj ˈlʲvovʲɪtɕ tɕɪbɨˈʂof) ( – ) was a Russian mathematician and considered to be the founding father of Russian mathematics. Chebyshev is known for his fundamental contributions to the fields of probability, statistics, mechanics, and number theory. A number of important mathematical concepts are named after him, including the Chebyshev inequality (which can be used to prove the weak law of large numbers), the Bertrand–Chebyshev theorem, Chebyshev polynomials, Chebyshev linkage, and Chebyshev bias. Transcription The surname Chebyshev has been transliterated in several different ways, like Tchebichef, Tchebychev, Tchebycheff, Tschebyschev, Tschebyschef, Tschebyscheff, Čebyčev, Čebyšev, Chebysheff, Chebychov, Chebyshov (according to native Russian speakers, this one provides the closest pronunciation in English to the correct pronunciation in old Russian) ...
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Coordinate Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called '' vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called ''scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear ...
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