Statement Of Comprehensive Income
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Statement Of Comprehensive Income
An income statement or profit and loss accountProfessional English in Use - Finance, Cambridge University Press, p. 10 (also referred to as a ''profit and loss statement'' (P&L), ''statement of profit or loss'', ''revenue statement'', ''statement of financial performance'', ''earnings statement'', ''statement of earnings'', ''operating statement'', or ''statement of operations'') is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the company's revenues and expenses during a particular period. It indicates how the revenues (also known as the ''“top line”'') are transformed into the net income or net profit (the result after all revenues and expenses have been accounted for). The purpose of the income statement is to show managers and investors whether the company made money (profit) or lost money (loss) during the period being reported. An income statement represents a period of time (as does the cash flow statement). This contrasts with the balance sheet, which repr ...
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Sankey Diagram - Income Statement
Sankey, also spelled Sanchi, Zanchi may refer to: People: * Bishop Sankey (b 1992), American football running back * Ben Sankey (b 1976), American football quarterback * Ben Sankey (1907-2001), American baseball player * Clarence Sankey (1913-1996), Australian cricketer * David Sankey, Pennsylvanian state senator * Derek Sankey (b 1948), Canadian basketball player * Herbert Stuart Sankey (1854-1940), British barrister and politician * Ira D. Sankey (1840–1908), American gospel singer and composer * Jay Sankey, Canadian magician * Jerome Sankey, English Civil War soldier and politician *John Sankey, 1st Viscount Sankey (1866–1948), British politician * John Sankey, Australian heavy metal drummer * Joseph Sankey (b 1826), founder of Joseph Sankey & Sons Ltd. later part of GKN. *Matthew Henry Phineas Riall Sankey (1853–1926), Irish engineer and creator of the Sankey diagram * Maurie Sankey (1940-1965), Australian rules football player * Philip Sankey (1830–1909), English clerg ...
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FASB
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is a private standard-setting body whose primary purpose is to establish and improve Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) within the United States in the public's interest. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) designated the FASB as the organization responsible for setting accounting standards for public companies in the US. The FASB replaced the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' (AICPA) Accounting Principles Board (APB) on July 1, 1973. The FASB is run by the nonprofit Financial Accounting Foundation. FASB accounting standards are accepted as authoritative by many organizations, including state Boards of Accountancy and the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA). Structure The FASB is based in Norwalk, Connecticut, and is led by seven full-time Board members,Spiceland, David; Sepe, James; Nelson, Mark; & Tomassini, Lawrence (2009). ''Intermediate Accounting'' (5th Edition). McGraw-Hill/I ...
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Interest Expense
Interest expense relates to the cost of borrowing money. It is the price that a lender charges a borrower for the use of the lender's money. On the income statement, interest expense can represent the cost of borrowing money from banks, bond investors, and other sources. Interest expense is different from operating expense and CAPEX, for it relates to the capital structure of a company, and it is usually tax-deductible. On the income statement, interest income and interest expense are reported separately, or sometimes together under either "interest income - net" (if there is a surplus in interest income) or "interest expense - net" (if there is a surplus in interest expense). Calculation The following shows the calculation of interest rate. # Take the principal outstanding amount on loan during the period. # Identify the annualized interest rate. # Identify the time period, which the interest expense would be calculated. # Use the following formula to calculate the intere ...
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Intangible Assets
An intangible asset is an asset that lacks physical substance. Examples are patents, copyright, franchises, goodwill, trademarks, and trade names, as well as software. This is in contrast to physical assets (machinery, buildings, etc.) and financial assets (government securities, etc.). An intangible asset is usually very difficult to valuate. They suffer from typical market failures of non-rivalry and non-excludability.Webster, Elisabeth; Jensen, Paul H. (2006). ''Investment in Intangible Capital: An Enterprise Perspective.'' The Economic Record, Vol. 82, No. 256, March, 82-96. Today, a large part of the corporate economy ( NPV) consists of intangible assets. Definition Intangible assets may be one possible contributor to the disparity between "company value as per their accounting records", as well as "company value as per their market capitalization". Considering this argument, it is important to understand what an intangible asset truly is in the eyes of an accountant. A num ...
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Fixed Assets
A fixed asset, also known as long-lived assets or property, plant and equipment (PP&E), is a term used in accounting for assets and property that may not easily be converted into cash. Fixed assets are different from current assets, such as cash or bank accounts, because the latter are liquid assets. In most cases, only tangible assets are referred to as fixed. While IAS 16 (International Accounting Standard) does not define the term "Fixed Asset", it is often colloquially considered a synonym for property, plant and equipment. According to IAS 16.6, property, plant and equipment are tangible items that: (a) are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes and (b) are expected to be used during more than one period." Fixed assets are one of two types: * "Freehold Assets" – assets which are purchased with legal right of ownership and used, and * "Leasehold Assets" – assets used by owner without le ...
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Amortization (accounting)
In accounting, amortization refers to expensing the acquisition cost minus the residual value of intangible assets in a systematic manner over their estimated "useful economic lives" so as to reflect their consumption, expiry, and obsolescence, or other decline in value as a result of use or the passage of time. The term amortization can also refer to the completion of that process, as in "the amortization of the tower was expected in 1734". Depreciation is a corresponding concept for tangible assets. Methodologies for allocating amortization to each accounting period are generally the same as these for depreciation. However, many intangible assets such as goodwill or certain brands may be deemed to have an indefinite useful life and are therefore not subject to amortization (although goodwill is subjected to an impairment test every year). While theoretically amortization is used to account for the decreasing value of an intangible asset over its useful life, in practice man ...
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Depreciation
In accountancy, depreciation is a term that refers to two aspects of the same concept: first, the actual decrease of fair value of an asset, such as the decrease in value of factory equipment each year as it is used and wear, and second, the allocation in accounting statements of the original cost of the assets to periods in which the assets are used (depreciation with the matching principle). Depreciation is thus the decrease in the value of assets and the method used to reallocate, or "write down" the cost of a tangible asset (such as equipment) over its useful life span. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both accounting and tax purposes. The decrease in value of the asset affects the balance sheet of a business or entity, and the method of depreciating the asset, accounting-wise, affects the net income, and thus the income statement that they report. Generally, the cost is allocated as depreciation expense among the periods in which the asset is expected to be us ...
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SG&A
SG&A (alternately SGA, SAG, G&A or SGNA) is an initialism used in accounting to refer to Selling, General and Administrative Expenses, which is a major non-production cost presented in an income statement (statement of profit or loss). SGA expenses consist of the combined costs of operating the company, which breaks down to: * Selling: The sum of all direct and indirect selling expenses, which includes salaries of labour (excluding those related to the production itself which are cost of goods sold), advertising expenses, rent, and all expenses and taxes related to selling product; * General: General operating expenses and taxes that are directly related to the general operation of the company, but do not relate to the other two categories; * Administration: Executive salaries and general support and all associated taxes related to the overall administration of the company. These expenses are sometimes referred to as company overheads, as they can not be traced directly to the ...
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Absorption Costing
Total absorption costing (TAC) is a method of Accounting cost which entails the full cost of manufacturing or providing a service. TAC includes not just the costs of materials and labour, but also of all manufacturing overheads (whether ‘fixed’ or ‘variable’). The cost of each cost center can be direct or indirect. The direct cost can be easily identified with individual cost centers. Whereas indirect cost cannot be easily identified with the cost center. The distribution of overhead among the departments is called apportionment. Primary apportionment or distribution of overheads The selection of the base on which overheads are or should be apportioned depends on the following principles: * Service or use basis: If the benefit obtained by various departments from the overheads can be measured, overheads can be apportioned on that basis. * Survey basis: If amount of overhead can't be measured survey basis can be applied. For example, if it can be noted that a supervisor is g ...
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Cost Of Sales
Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the carrying value of goods sold during a particular period. Costs are associated with particular goods using one of the several formulas, including specific identification, first-in first-out (FIFO), or average cost. Costs include all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs that are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of goods made by the businesses include material, labor, and allocated overhead. The costs of those goods which are not yet sold are deferred as costs of inventory until the inventory is sold or written down in value. Overview Many businesses sell goods that they have bought or produced. When the goods are bought or produced, the costs associated with such goods are capitalized as part of inventory (or stock) of goods. These costs are treated as an expense in the period the business recognizes income from sale of the goods. Determining costs requires keeping records of g ...
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Cost Of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the carrying value of goods sold during a particular period. Costs are associated with particular goods using one of the several formulas, including specific identification, first-in first-out (FIFO), or average cost. Costs include all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs that are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of goods made by the businesses include material, labor, and allocated overhead. The costs of those goods which are not yet sold are deferred as costs of inventory until the inventory is sold or written down in value. Overview Many businesses sell goods that they have bought or produced. When the goods are bought or produced, the costs associated with such goods are capitalized as part of inventory (or stock) of goods. These costs are treated as an expense in the period the business recognizes income from sale of the goods. Determining costs requires keeping records of go ...
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Accounts Payable
Accounts payable (AP) is money owed by a business to its suppliers shown as a liability on a company's balance sheet. It is distinct from notes payable liabilities, which are debts created by formal legal instrument documents. An accounts payable department's main responsibility is to process and review transactions between the company and its suppliers and to make sure that all outstanding invoices from their suppliers are approved, processed, and paid. Processing an invoice includes recording important data from the invoice and inputting it into the company's financial, or bookkeeping, system. After this is accomplished, the invoices must go through the company's respective business process in order to be paid. Overview An accounts payable is recorded in the Account Payable sub-ledger at the time an invoice is vouched for payment. Vouchered, or vouched, means that an invoice is approved for payment and has been recorded in the General Ledger or AP subledger as an outstanding, ...
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