State Variable
A state variable is one of the set of variables that are used to describe the mathematical "state" of a dynamical system. Intuitively, the state of a system describes enough about the system to determine its future behaviour in the absence of any external forces affecting the system. Models that consist of coupled firstorder differential equations are said to be in statevariable form. Examples *In mechanical systems, the position coordinates and velocities of mechanical parts are typical state variables; knowing these, it is possible to determine the future state of the objects in the system. *In thermodynamics, a state variable is an independent variable of a state function. Examples include internal energy, enthalpy, temperature, pressure, volume and entropy. Heat and work are not state functions, but process functions. *In electronic/electrical circuits, the voltages of the nodes and the currents through components in the circuit are usually the state variables. In any el ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Variable (mathematics)
In mathematics, a variable (from Latin '' variabilis'', "changeable") is a symbol that represents a mathematical object. A variable may represent a number, a vector, a matrix, a function, the argument of a function, a set, or an element of a set. Algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers solve a range of problems in a single computation. For example, the quadratic formula solves any quadratic equation by substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of that equation for the variables that represent them in the quadratic formula. In mathematical logic, a ''variable'' is either a symbol representing an unspecified term of the theory (a metavariable), or a basic object of the theory that is manipulated without referring to its possible intuitive interpretation. History In ancient works such as Euclid's ''Elements'', single letters refer to geometric points and shapes. In the 7th century, Brahmagupta used different colours to represent the u ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electrical Circuit
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g., batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches, transistors) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g., voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances). An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. Linear electrical networks, a special type consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are linearly superimposable. They are thus more easily analyzed, using powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response. A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors and ideal current and voltage sources. Analysis of resistive circuits is less complicated ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equation Of State
In physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables, which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature, or internal energy. Most modern equations of state are formulated in the Helmholtz free energy. Equations of state are useful in describing the properties of pure substances and mixtures in liquids, gases, and solid states as well as the state of matter in the interior of stars. Overview At present, there is no single equation of state that accurately predicts the properties of all substances under all conditions. An example of an equation of state correlates densities of gases and liquids to temperatures and pressures, known as the ideal gas law, which is roughly accurate for weakly polar gases at low pressures and moderate temperatures. This equation becomes increasingly inaccurate at higher pressures and lower temperatures, and fails to predict ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Control Theory
Control theory is a field of mathematics that deals with the control of dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines. The objective is to develop a model or algorithm governing the application of system inputs to drive the system to a desired state, while minimizing any ''delay'', ''overshoot'', or ''steadystate error'' and ensuring a level of control stability; often with the aim to achieve a degree of optimality. To do this, a controller with the requisite corrective behavior is required. This controller monitors the controlled process variable (PV), and compares it with the reference or set point (SP). The difference between actual and desired value of the process variable, called the ''error'' signal, or SPPV error, is applied as feedback to generate a control action to bring the controlled process variable to the same value as the set point. Other aspects which are also studied are controllability and observability. Control theory is used in control system eng ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Control (optimal Control Theory)
In optimal control theory, a control is a variable chosen by the controller or agent to manipulate state variables, similar to an actual control valve. Unlike the state variable, it does not have a predetermined equation of motion. The goal of optimal control theory is to find some sequence of controls (within an admissible set) to achieve an optimal path for the state variables (with respect to a loss function). A control given as a function of time only is referred to as an ''openloop control''. In contrast, a control that gives optimal solution during some remainder period as a function of the state variable at the beginning of the period is called a ''closedloop control''. See also * Control loop A control loop is the fundamental building block of industrial control systems. It consists of all the physical components and control functions necessary to automatically adjust the value of a measured process variable (PV) to equal the value of ... References Control loop ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

State Space (controls)
In control engineering, a statespace representation is a mathematical model of a physical system as a set of input, output and state variables related by firstorder differential equations or difference equations. State variables are variables whose values evolve over time in a way that depends on the values they have at any given time and on the externally imposed values of input variables. Output variables’ values depend on the values of the state variables. The "state space" is the Euclidean space in which the variables on the axes are the state variables. The state of the system can be represented as a ''state vector'' within that space. To abstract from the number of inputs, outputs and states, these variables are expressed as vectors. If the dynamical system is linear, timeinvariant, and finitedimensional, then the differential and algebraic equations may be written in matrix form. The statespace method is characterized by significant algebraization of general syste ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuoustime
In mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which variables that evolve over time are modeled. Discrete time Discrete time views values of variables as occurring at distinct, separate "points in time", or equivalently as being unchanged throughout each nonzero region of time ("time period")—that is, time is viewed as a discrete variable. Thus a nontime variable jumps from one value to another as time moves from one time period to the next. This view of time corresponds to a digital clock that gives a fixed reading of 10:37 for a while, and then jumps to a new fixed reading of 10:38, etc. In this framework, each variable of interest is measured once at each time period. The number of measurements between any two time periods is finite. Measurements are typically made at sequential integer values of the variable "time". A discrete signal or discretetime signal is a time series consisting of a sequence of quantities. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discretetime
In mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which variables that evolve over time are modeled. Discrete time Discrete time views values of variables as occurring at distinct, separate "points in time", or equivalently as being unchanged throughout each nonzero region of time ("time period")—that is, time is viewed as a discrete variable. Thus a nontime variable jumps from one value to another as time moves from one time period to the next. This view of time corresponds to a digital clock that gives a fixed reading of 10:37 for a while, and then jumps to a new fixed reading of 10:38, etc. In this framework, each variable of interest is measured once at each time period. The number of measurements between any two time periods is finite. Measurements are typically made at sequential integer values of the variable "time". A discrete signal or discretetime signal is a time series consisting of a sequence of quantities. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, \begin1 & 9 & 13 \\20 & 5 & 6 \end is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a "matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra. Therefore, the study of matrices is a large part of linear algebra, and most properties and operations of abstract linear algebra can be expressed in terms of matrices. For example, matrix multiplication represents composition of linear maps. Not all matrices are related to linear algebra. This is, in particular, the case in graph theory, of incidence matrices, and adjacency matrices. ''This article focuses on matrices related to linear algebra, and, unle ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Time Invariant
In system analysis, among other fields of study, a linear timeinvariant (LTI) system is a system that produces an output signal from any input signal subject to the constraints of linearity and timeinvariance; these terms are briefly defined below. These properties apply (exactly or approximately) to many important physical systems, in which case the response of the system to an arbitrary input can be found directly using convolution: where is called the system's impulse response and ∗ represents convolution (not to be confused with multiplication, as is frequently employed by the symbol in computer languages). What's more, there are systematic methods for solving any such system (determining ), whereas systems not meeting both properties are generally more difficult (or impossible) to solve analytically. A good example of an LTI system is any electrical circuit consisting of resistors, capacitors, inductors and linear amplifiers. Linear timeinvariant system theory i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

State Space (controls)
In control engineering, a statespace representation is a mathematical model of a physical system as a set of input, output and state variables related by firstorder differential equations or difference equations. State variables are variables whose values evolve over time in a way that depends on the values they have at any given time and on the externally imposed values of input variables. Output variables’ values depend on the values of the state variables. The "state space" is the Euclidean space in which the variables on the axes are the state variables. The state of the system can be represented as a ''state vector'' within that space. To abstract from the number of inputs, outputs and states, these variables are expressed as vectors. If the dynamical system is linear, timeinvariant, and finitedimensional, then the differential and algebraic equations may be written in matrix form. The statespace method is characterized by significant algebraization of general syste ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Control Engineering
Control engineering or control systems engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with control systems, applying control theory to design equipment and systems with desired behaviors in control environments. The discipline of controls overlaps and is usually taught along with electrical engineering and mechanical engineering at many institutions around the world. The practice uses sensors and detectors to measure the output performance of the process being controlled; these measurements are used to provide corrective feedback helping to achieve the desired performance. Systems designed to perform without requiring human input are called automatic control systems (such as cruise control for regulating the speed of a car). Multidisciplinary in nature, control systems engineering activities focus on implementation of control systems mainly derived by mathematical modeling of a diverse range of systems. Overview Modern day control engineering is a relatively new field of s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 