Slope
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the letter ''m'' is used for slope, but its earliest use in English appears in O'Brien (1844) who wrote the equation of a straight line as and it can also be found in Todhunter (1888) who wrote it as "''y'' = ''mx'' + ''c''". Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient ("rise over run"), giving the same number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative "rise". The line may be practical – as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan. The ''steepness'', incline, or grade of a line is measured by the absolute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slopes Of Parallel And Perpendicular Lines
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the letter ''m'' is used for slope, but its earliest use in English appears in O'Brien (1844) who wrote the equation of a straight line as and it can also be found in Todhunter (1888) who wrote it as "''y'' = ''mx'' + ''c''". Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient ("rise over run"), giving the same number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative "rise". The line may be practical – as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan. The ''steepness'', incline, or grade of a line is measured by the absolute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slope Of Lines Illustrated
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the letter ''m'' is used for slope, but its earliest use in English appears in O'Brien (1844) who wrote the equation of a straight line as and it can also be found in Todhunter (1888) who wrote it as "''y'' = ''mx'' + ''c''". Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient ("rise over run"), giving the same number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative "rise". The line may be practical – as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan. The ''steepness'', incline, or grade of a line is measured by the absolute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Grade (slope)
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the slope, where zero indicates horizontality. A larger number indicates higher or steeper degree of "tilt". Often slope is calculated as a ratio of "rise" to "run", or as a fraction ("rise over run") in which ''run'' is the horizontal distance (not the distance along the slope) and ''rise'' is the vertical distance. Slopes of existing physical features such as canyons and hillsides, stream and river banks and beds are often described as grades, but typically grades are used for humanmade surfaces such as roads, landscape grading, roof pitches, railroads, aqueducts, and pedestrian or bicycle routes. The grade may refer to the longitudinal slope or the perpendicular cross slope. Nomenclature There are several ways to express slope: # as an ''angle'' of inc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Function
In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions: * In calculus and related areas, a linear function is a function (mathematics), function whose graph of a function, graph is a straight line, that is, a polynomial function of polynomial degree, degree zero or one. For distinguishing such a linear function from the other concept, the term Affine transformation, affine function is often used. * In linear algebra, mathematical analysis, and functional analysis, a linear function is a linear map. As a polynomial function In calculus, analytic geometry and related areas, a linear function is a polynomial of degree one or less, including the zero polynomial (the latter not being considered to have degree zero). When the function is of only one variable (mathematics), variable, it is of the form :f(x)=ax+b, where and are constant (mathematics), constants, often real numbers. The graph of a function, graph of such a function of one variable is a n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Equation
In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form a_1x_1+\ldots+a_nx_n+b=0, where x_1,\ldots,x_n are the variables (or unknowns), and b,a_1,\ldots,a_n are the coefficients, which are often real numbers. The coefficients may be considered as parameters of the equation, and may be arbitrary expressions, provided they do not contain any of the variables. To yield a meaningful equation, the coefficients a_1, \ldots, a_n are required to not all be zero. Alternatively, a linear equation can be obtained by equating to zero a linear polynomial over some field, from which the coefficients are taken. The solutions of such an equation are the values that, when substituted for the unknowns, make the equality true. In the case of just one variable, there is exactly one solution (provided that a_1\ne 0). Often, the term ''linear equation'' refers implicitly to this particular case, in which the variable is sensibly called the ''unknown''. In the case of two vari ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gradient Of A Line In Coordinates From 12x+2 To +12x+2
In vector calculus Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3. The term "vector calculus" is sometimes used as a synonym for the broader subject ..., the gradient of a scalarvalued differentiable function of Function of several variables, several variables is the vector field (or vectorvalued function) \nabla f whose value at a point p is the "direction and rate of fastest increase". If the gradient of a function is nonzero at a point , the direction of the gradient is the direction in which the function increases most quickly from , and the magnitude (mathematics), magnitude of the gradient is the rate of increase in that direction, the greatest absolute value, absolute directional derivative. Further, a point where the gradient is the zero vector is known as a stationary point. The gradient thus plays a fundamental role in optimization theory, where i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gradient
In vector calculus, the gradient of a scalarvalued differentiable function of several variables is the vector field (or vectorvalued function) \nabla f whose value at a point p is the "direction and rate of fastest increase". If the gradient of a function is nonzero at a point , the direction of the gradient is the direction in which the function increases most quickly from , and the magnitude of the gradient is the rate of increase in that direction, the greatest absolute directional derivative. Further, a point where the gradient is the zero vector is known as a stationary point. The gradient thus plays a fundamental role in optimization theory, where it is used to maximize a function by gradient ascent. In coordinatefree terms, the gradient of a function f(\bf) may be defined by: :df=\nabla f \cdot d\bf where ''df'' is the total infinitesimal change in ''f'' for an infinitesimal displacement d\bf, and is seen to be maximal when d\bf is in the direction of the gradi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constant Function
In mathematics, a constant function is a function whose (output) value is the same for every input value. For example, the function is a constant function because the value of is 4 regardless of the input value (see image). Basic properties As a realvalued function of a realvalued argument, a constant function has the general form or just :Example: The function or just is the specific constant function where the output value is The domain of this function is the set of all real numbers R. The codomain of this function is just . The independent variable ''x'' does not appear on the right side of the function expression and so its value is "vacuously substituted". Namely and so on. No matter what value of ''x'' is input, the output is "2". :Realworld example: A store where every item is sold for the price of 1 dollar. The graph of the constant function is a horizontal line in the plane that passes through the point In the context of a polynomial in one variable ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Equation
In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form a_1x_1+\ldots+a_nx_n+b=0, where x_1,\ldots,x_n are the variables (or unknowns), and b,a_1,\ldots,a_n are the coefficients, which are often real numbers. The coefficients may be considered as parameters of the equation, and may be arbitrary expressions, provided they do not contain any of the variables. To yield a meaningful equation, the coefficients a_1, \ldots, a_n are required to not all be zero. Alternatively, a linear equation can be obtained by equating to zero a linear polynomial over some field, from which the coefficients are taken. The solutions of such an equation are the values that, when substituted for the unknowns, make the equality true. In the case of just one variable, there is exactly one solution (provided that a_1\ne 0). Often, the term ''linear equation'' refers implicitly to this particular case, in which the variable is sensibly called the ''unknown''. In the case of two vari ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ratio
In mathematics, a ratio shows how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8:6, which is equivalent to the ratio 4:3). Similarly, the ratio of lemons to oranges is 6:8 (or 3:4) and the ratio of oranges to the total amount of fruit is 8:14 (or 4:7). The numbers in a ratio may be quantities of any kind, such as counts of people or objects, or such as measurements of lengths, weights, time, etc. In most contexts, both numbers are restricted to be Positive integer, positive. A ratio may be specified either by giving both constituting numbers, written as "''a'' to ''b''" or "''a'':''b''", or by giving just the value of their quotient Equal quotients correspond to equal ratios. Consequently, a ratio may be considered as an ordered pair of numbers, a Fraction (mathematics), fraction with the first number in the numerator and the second in the denom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tangent
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve. More precisely, a straight line is said to be a tangent of a curve at a point if the line passes through the point on the curve and has slope , where ''f'' is the derivative of ''f''. A similar definition applies to space curves and curves in ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. As it passes through the point where the tangent line and the curve meet, called the point of tangency, the tangent line is "going in the same direction" as the curve, and is thus the best straightline approximation to the curve at that point. The tangent line to a point on a differentiable curve can also be thought of as a '' tangent line approximation'', the graph of the affine function that best approximates the original function at the given point. Similarly, t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division By Zero
In mathematics, division by zero is division (mathematics), division where the divisor (denominator) is 0, zero. Such a division can be formally expression (mathematics), expressed as \tfrac, where is the dividend (numerator). In ordinary arithmetic, the expression has no meaning, as there is no number that, when multiplied by , gives (assuming a \neq 0); thus, division by zero is undefined (mathematics), undefined. Since any number multiplied by zero is zero, the expression 0/0, \tfrac is also undefined; when it is the form of a limit (mathematics), limit, it is an Indeterminate form#Indeterminate form 0/0, indeterminate form. Historically, one of the earliest recorded references to the mathematical impossibility of assigning a value to \tfrac is contained in AngloIrish people, AngloIrish philosopher George Berkeley's criticism of infinitesimal calculus in 1734 in ''The Analyst'' ("ghosts of departed quantities"). There are mathematical structures in which \tfrac is define ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 