Separation Axiom
   HOME
*



picture info

Separation Axiom
In topology and related fields of mathematics, there are several restrictions that one often makes on the kinds of topological spaces that one wishes to consider. Some of these restrictions are given by the separation axioms. These are sometimes called ''Tychonoff separation axioms'', after Andrey Tychonoff. The separation axioms are not fundamental axioms like those of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, set theory, but rather defining properties which may be specified to distinguish certain types of topological spaces. The separation axioms are denoted with the letter "T" after the German language, German ''Trennungsaxiom ("''separation axiom"), and increasing numerical subscripts denote stronger and stronger properties. The precise definitions of the history of the separation axioms, separation axioms has varied over time. Especially in older literature, different authors might have different definitions of each condition. Preliminary definitions Before we define the separation a ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  




Hausdorff Regular Normal Space Diagram
Hausdorff may refer to: * A Hausdorff space, when used as an adjective, as in "the real line is Hausdorff" * Felix Hausdorff (1868–1942), the German mathematician after whom Hausdorff spaces are named * Hausdorff dimension, a measure theoretic concept of dimension * Hausdorff distance or Hausdorff metric, which measures how far two compact non-empty subsets of a metric space are from each other * Hausdorff density * Hausdorff maximal principle * Hausdorff measure * Hausdorff moment problem * Hausdorff paradox The Hausdorff paradox is a paradox in mathematics named after Felix Hausdorff. It involves the sphere (a 3-dimensional sphere in ). It states that if a certain countable subset is removed from , then the remainder can be divided into three disjoin ...
{{disambig, surname ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as specially-marked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum. Just like ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Completely Hausdorff Space
In topology, a discipline within mathematics, an Urysohn space, or T2½ space, is a topological space in which any two distinct points can be separated by closed neighborhoods. A completely Hausdorff space, or functionally Hausdorff space, is a topological space in which any two distinct points can be separated by a continuous function. These conditions are separation axioms that are somewhat stronger than the more familiar Hausdorff space, Hausdorff axiom T2. Definitions Suppose that ''X'' is a topological space. Let ''x'' and ''y'' be points in ''X''. *We say that ''x'' and ''y'' can be ''separated by closed neighborhoods'' if there exists a closed set, closed neighborhood (topology), neighborhood ''U'' of ''x'' and a closed neighborhood ''V'' of ''y'' such that ''U'' and ''V'' are disjoint sets, disjoint (''U'' ∩ ''V'' = ∅). (Note that a "closed neighborhood of ''x''" is a closed set that contains an open set containing ''x''.) *We say that ''x'' and ''y'' can be ''separat ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Urysohn And Completely Hausdorff Spaces
In topology, a discipline within mathematics, an Urysohn space, or T2½ space, is a topological space in which any two distinct points can be separated by closed neighborhoods. A completely Hausdorff space, or functionally Hausdorff space, is a topological space in which any two distinct points can be separated by a continuous function. These conditions are separation axioms that are somewhat stronger than the more familiar Hausdorff axiom T2. Definitions Suppose that ''X'' is a topological space. Let ''x'' and ''y'' be points in ''X''. *We say that ''x'' and ''y'' can be '' separated by closed neighborhoods'' if there exists a closed neighborhood ''U'' of ''x'' and a closed neighborhood ''V'' of ''y'' such that ''U'' and ''V'' are disjoint (''U'' ∩ ''V'' = ∅). (Note that a "closed neighborhood of ''x''" is a closed set that contains an open set containing ''x''.) *We say that ''x'' and ''y'' can be ''separated by a function'' if there exists a continuous function ''f ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Hausdorff Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the many separation axioms that can be imposed on a topological space, the "Hausdorff condition" (T2) is the most frequently used and discussed. It implies the uniqueness of limits of sequences, nets, and filters. Hausdorff spaces are named after Felix Hausdorff, one of the founders of topology. Hausdorff's original definition of a topological space (in 1914) included the Hausdorff condition as an axiom. Definitions Points x and y in a topological space X can be '' separated by neighbourhoods'' if there exists a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of y such that U and V are disjoint (U\cap V=\varnothing). X is a Hausdorff space if any two distinct points in X are separated by neighbourhoods. This condition is the third separati ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


R1 Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the many separation axioms that can be imposed on a topological space, the "Hausdorff condition" (T2) is the most frequently used and discussed. It implies the uniqueness of limits of sequences, nets, and filters. Hausdorff spaces are named after Felix Hausdorff, one of the founders of topology. Hausdorff's original definition of a topological space (in 1914) included the Hausdorff condition as an axiom. Definitions Points x and y in a topological space X can be '' separated by neighbourhoods'' if there exists a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of y such that U and V are disjoint (U\cap V=\varnothing). X is a Hausdorff space if any two distinct points in X are separated by neighbourhoods. This condition is the third separation ax ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  




Functional Analysis
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations. The usage of the word '' functional'' as a noun goes back to the calculus of variations, implying a function whose argument is a function. The term was first used in Hadamard's 1910 book on that subject. However, the general concept of a functional had previously been introduced in 1887 by the I ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Fréchet Space
In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, Fréchet spaces, named after Maurice Fréchet, are special topological vector spaces. They are generalizations of Banach spaces ( normed vector spaces that are complete with respect to the metric induced by the norm). All Banach and Hilbert spaces are Fréchet spaces. Spaces of infinitely differentiable functions are typical examples of Fréchet spaces, many of which are typically Banach spaces. A Fréchet space X is defined to be a locally convex metrizable topological vector space (TVS) that is complete as a TVS, meaning that every Cauchy sequence in X converges to some point in X (see footnote for more details).Here "Cauchy" means Cauchy with respect to the canonical uniformity that every TVS possess. That is, a sequence x_ = \left(x_m\right)_^ in a TVS X is Cauchy if and only if for all neighborhoods U of the origin in X, x_m - x_n \in U whenever m and n are sufficiently large. Note that this definition of a ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


T1 Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a T1 space is a topological space in which, for every pair of distinct points, each has a neighborhood not containing the other point. An R0 space is one in which this holds for every pair of topologically distinguishable points. The properties T1 and R0 are examples of separation axioms. Definitions Let ''X'' be a topological space and let ''x'' and ''y'' be points in ''X''. We say that ''x'' and ''y'' are if each lies in a neighbourhood that does not contain the other point. * ''X'' is called a T1 space if any two distinct points in ''X'' are separated. * ''X'' is called an R0 space if any two topologically distinguishable points in ''X'' are separated. A T1 space is also called an accessible space or a space with Fréchet topology and an R0 space is also called a symmetric space. (The term also has an entirely different meaning in functional analysis. For this reason, the term ''T1 space'' is preferred. There is also a n ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


R0 Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a T1 space is a topological space in which, for every pair of distinct points, each has a neighborhood not containing the other point. An R0 space is one in which this holds for every pair of topologically distinguishable points. The properties T1 and R0 are examples of separation axioms. Definitions Let ''X'' be a topological space and let ''x'' and ''y'' be points in ''X''. We say that ''x'' and ''y'' are if each lies in a neighbourhood that does not contain the other point. * ''X'' is called a T1 space if any two distinct points in ''X'' are separated. * ''X'' is called an R0 space if any two topologically distinguishable points in ''X'' are separated. A T1 space is also called an accessible space or a space with Fréchet topology and an R0 space is also called a symmetric space. (The term also has an entirely different meaning in functional analysis. For this reason, the term ''T1 space'' is preferred. There is also a not ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  




Topological Distinguishability
In topology, two points of a topological space ''X'' are topologically indistinguishable if they have exactly the same neighborhoods. That is, if ''x'' and ''y'' are points in ''X'', and ''Nx'' is the set of all neighborhoods that contain ''x'', and ''Ny'' is the set of all neighborhoods that contain ''y'', then ''x'' and ''y'' are "topologically indistinguishable" if and only if ''Nx'' = ''Ny''. (See Hausdorff's axiomatic neighborhood systems.) Intuitively, two points are topologically indistinguishable if the topology of ''X'' is unable to discern between the points. Two points of ''X'' are topologically distinguishable if they are not topologically indistinguishable. This means there is an open set containing precisely one of the two points (equivalently, there is a closed set containing precisely one of the two points). This open set can then be used to distinguish between the two points. A T0 space is a topological space in which every pair of distinct poi ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

T0 Space
T, or t, is the twentieth letter in the Latin alphabet, used in the modern English alphabet, the alphabets of other western European languages and others worldwide. Its name in English is ''tee'' (pronounced ), plural ''tees''. It is derived from the Semitic Taw 𐤕 of the Phoenician and Paleo-Hebrew script (Aramaic and Hebrew Taw ת/𐡕/, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic ت Tāʼ) via the Greek letter τ ( tau). In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most commonly used letter in English-language texts. History '' Taw'' was the last letter of the Western Semitic and Hebrew alphabets. The sound value of Semitic ''Taw'', Greek alphabet Tαυ (''Tau''), Old Italic and Latin T has remained fairly constant, representing in each of these; and it has also kept its original basic shape in most of these alphabets. Use ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]