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Royalty Trust
A royalty trust is a type of corporation, mostly in the United States or Canada, usually involved in petroleum, oil and gas production or mining. However, unlike most corporations, its profits are not taxed at the corporate level provided a certain high percentage (e.g. 90%) of profits are distributed to shareholders as dividends. The dividends are then taxed as personal income. This system, similar to real estate investment trusts, effectively avoids the double taxation of corporate income. Texas oilman T. Boone Pickens is often credited with creating the first royalty trust in 1979; however Marine Petroleum Trust (Marps) was created in 1956, twenty three years earlier. Characteristics of royalty trusts Royalty trusts typically own petroleum, oil or natural gas wells, the mineral rights of wells, or mineral rights on other types of properties. An outside company must perform the actual operation of the oil or gas field, or mine, and the trust itself, in the United States, may hav ...
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Corporation
A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of statute"; a legal person in legal context) and recognized as such in law for certain purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ''ad hoc'' act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered based on two aspects: by whether they can issue stock, or by whether they are formed to make a profit. Depending on the number of owners, a corporation can be classified as ''aggregate'' (the subject of this article) or '' sole'' (a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office occupied by a single natural person). One of the most at ...
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Mesabi Trust
The Mesabi Iron Range is a mining district in northeastern Minnesota following an elongate trend containing large deposits of iron ore. It is the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. First described in 1866, it is the chief iron ore mining district in the United States. The district is located largely in Itasca and Saint Louis counties. It has been extensively worked since 1892, and has seen a transition from high-grade direct shipping ores through gravity concentrates to the current industry exclusively producing iron ore (taconite) pellets. Production has been dominantly controlled by vertically integrated steelmakers since 1901, and therefore is dictated largely by US ironmaking capacity and demand. Name The Mesabi Range was known to the local Ojibwe as ''Misaabe-wajiw'' ("Giant mountain"). Throughout the Mesabi Range, "Mesaba" and "Missabe" spelling variations are found along with places containing "Giant" in t ...
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Marine Petroleum Trust
Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean. Marine or marines may refer to: Ocean * Maritime (other) * Marine art * Marine biology * Marine debris * Marine habitats * Marine life * Marine pollution Military * Marines, a naval-based infantry force ** United States Marine Corps ** Royal Marines of the UK ** Brazilian Marine Corps ** Spanish Marine Infantry ** Fusiliers marins (France) ** Indonesian Marine Corps ** Republic of China Marine Corps ** Republic of Korea Marine Corps ** Royal Thai Marine Corps *"Marine" also means "navy" in several languages: ** Austro-Hungarian Navy () ** Belgian Navy (, , ) ** Royal Canadian Navy () *** Provincial Marine (1796–1910), a predecessor to the Royal Canadian Navy ** Navy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo () ** Royal Danish Navy () ** Finnish Navy (, ) ** French Navy () ** Gabonese Navy () ** German Navy () ** Royal Moroccan Navy () ** Royal Netherlands Navy () ** Swedish Navy () Places * Marin ...
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Hugoton Royalty Trust
Hugoton is a city in and the county seat of Stevens County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2020 census, the population of the city was 3,747. History Settlers from McPherson, Kansas established a settlement in what was then west-central Seward County, Kansas in 1885. They originally named this settlement Hugo in honor of French writer Victor Hugo, but then changed its name to Hugoton to distinguish it from Hugo, Colorado. Hugoton's first church, Hugoton United Methodist, was also the first in Stevens County and was founded in 1886; it is still active as of 2019''.'' The first post office in Hugoton was established in April 1886. In 1886, the Kansas Legislature reestablished the surrounding area as Stevens County, and Gov. John Martin designated Hugoton as the interim county seat. This set off a violent county seat war with nearby Woodsdale. Hugoton became the permanent county seat in 1887, but the conflict continued, culminating in the Hay Meadow Massacre of 1888. Wood ...
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Enerplus Resources Fund
Enerplus Corporation is one of Canada’s largest independent oil and gas producers. The company holds oil and natural gas property interest in the United States and in western Canada, in the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The company is based out of Calgary, Alberta and trades on both the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. It was Canada's first income trust. History Enerplus was established in 1986 by Marcel Tremblay, a pension fund manager and John Brussa, a lawyer. It was originally called Enerplus Resources Fund, and it was Canada's first income trust. Its original purpose was to provide income from mature, aging oil and gas assets to retail investors, taking advantage of the tax advantages of the income trust structure. It started trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1986 with a $10 million IPO. In 1996, Mark Resources renamed itself Enermark, became an income trust, and joined the Enerplus group of companies. This w ...
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Daylight Resources Trust Ltd
Daylight is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime. This includes direct sunlight, diffuse sky radiation, and (often) both of these reflected by Earth and terrestrial objects, like landforms and buildings. Sunlight scattered or reflected by astronomical objects is generally not considered daylight. Therefore, daylight excludes moonlight, despite it being reflected indirect sunlight. Definition Daylight is present at a particular location, to some degree, whenever the Sun is above the local horizon. (This is true for slightly more than 50% of the Earth at any given time. For an explanation of why it is not exactly half, see here). However, the outdoor illuminance can vary from 120,000 lux for direct sunlight at noon, which may cause eye pain, to less than 5 lux for thick storm clouds with the Sun at the horizon (even <1 lux for the most extreme case), which may make shadows from distant

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Cross Timbers Royalty Trust
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is termed a saltire in heraldic terminology. The cross has been widely recognized as a symbol of Christianity from an early period.''Christianity: an introduction''
by Alister E. McGrath 2006 pages 321-323
However, the use of the cross as a religious symbol predates Christianity; in the ancient times it was a pagan religious symbol throughout Europe and western Asia. The effigy of a man hanging on a cross was set up in the fields to protect the crops. It often appeared in conjunction with the female-genital circle or oval, to signify the sacred marriage, as in Egyptian amule ...
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Canadian Oil Sands Trust
Canadian Oil Sands Limited was a Canadian company that generates income from its oil sands investment in the Syncrude Joint Venture. Syncrude operated an oil sands facility and produced crude oil through the mining of oil sands from ore deposits in the Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada. In 2016, Suncor Energy purchased all of the shares of Canadian Oil Sands Limited. History In 1978, Syncrude produced its first barrel of oil. PanCanadian Petroleum (later Encana, now Ovintiv) formed Canadian Oil Sands Trust in 1995 with a 10% interest in Syncrude. The following year, Gulf Canada formed Athabasca Oil Sands Trust with an 11.74% interest in Syncrude. Canadian Oil Sands Trust and Athabasca Oil Sands Trust merged in 2001, continuing as Canadian Oil Sands Trust. Canadian Oil Sands Trust increased its interest in Syncrude to 35.5% in 2003. A further purchase of a 1.25% incremental interest brought the trust's interest in Syncrude to its current level of 36.74%. Other in ...
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BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust
The BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust is a United States oil and natural gas royalty trust based in New York, New York. With a market capitalization of US$155 million in early 2020, and an average trading volume of 322,000 shares, BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust is the largest conventional oil and gas trust in the United States. Its assets are in the huge Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, the largest oil field in North America, and at the end of 2006 the Trust claimed to have proved reserves of 85.1 million barrels of crude oil. As of the end of 2018 the Trust claimed to have proved reserves of 15.77 million barrels of crude oil. Standard Oil Company and BP Exploration, both now branches of British Petroleum, set up the trust on February 28, 1989. They distribute royalties on a portion of the oil produced from the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, typically 16.4246% of the first 90,000 barrels of net daily production. In their 2018 Annual Report, the Trust estimated it would continue to make royalty payout ...
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Baytex Energy Trust
Baytex Energy Corp. is an energy company based in Calgary, Alberta. The company is engaged in the acquisition, development and production of crude oil and natural gas in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and in the Eagle Ford in the United States. Baytex's common shares trade on the Toronto Stock Exchange and on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol BTE. History Early on (1993–2000) the company was more focused on developing light oil and natural gas containing properties in North and SE Alberta. In Jan 19, 2006, Baytex Energy Trust announced that the New York Stock Exchange had cleared Baytex to file an Original Listing Application to list its trust units on the NYSE. The company began trading on the NYSE on March 27. In April 2008 it completed a $181 million takeover of Burmis Energy Inc, a Calgary-based oil and natural gas producer (72% of production was natural gas) that was nine times smaller than Baytex at the time. The deal gave Baytex control of the ...
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Horizontal Drilling
Directional drilling (or slant drilling) is the practice of drilling non-vertical bores. It can be broken down into four main groups: oilfield directional drilling, utility installation directional drilling, directional boring (horizontal directional drilling - HDD), and surface in seam (SIS), which horizontally intersects a vertical bore target to extract coal bed methane. History Many prerequisites enabled this suite of technologies to become productive. Probably, the first requirement was the realization that oil wells, or water wells, do not necessarily need to be vertical. This realization was quite slow, and did not really grasp the attention of the oil industry until the late 1920s when there were several lawsuits alleging that wells drilled from a rig on one property had crossed the boundary and were penetrating a reservoir on an adjacent property. Initially, proxy evidence such as production changes in other wells was accepted, but such cases fueled the development of ...
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