Row Echelon Form
In linear algebra, a matrix is in echelon form if it has the shape resulting from a Gaussian elimination. A matrix being in row echelon form means that Gaussian elimination has operated on the rows, and column echelon form means that Gaussian elimination has operated on the columns. In other words, a matrix is in column echelon form if its transpose is in row echelon form. Therefore, only row echelon forms are considered in the remainder of this article. The similar properties of column echelon form are easily deduced by transposing all the matrices. Specifically, a matrix is in row echelon form if * All rows consisting of only zeroes are at the bottom. * The leading entry (that is the leftmost nonzero entry) of every nonzero row is to the right the leading entry of every row above. Some texts add the condition that the leading coefficient must be 1 while others regard this as ''reduced'' row echelon form. These two conditions imply that all entries in a column below a lead ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and fields of engineering, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and computing efficiently with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, it is often used for dealing with firstorder approximations, using the fact that the differential of a multivariate function at a point is the linear ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a nonzero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Numerical Linear Algebra
Numerical linear algebra, sometimes called applied linear algebra, is the study of how matrix operations can be used to create computer algorithms which efficiently and accurately provide approximate answers to questions in continuous mathematics. It is a subfield of numerical analysis, and a type of linear algebra. Computers use floatingpoint arithmetic and cannot exactly represent irrational data, so when a computer algorithm is applied to a matrix of data, it can sometimes increase the difference between a number stored in the computer and the true number that it is an approximation of. Numerical linear algebra uses properties of vectors and matrices to develop computer algorithms that minimize the error introduced by the computer, and is also concerned with ensuring that the algorithm is as efficient as possible. Numerical linear algebra aims to solve problems of continuous mathematics using finite precision computers, so its applications to the natural and social sciences ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Society For Industrial And Applied Mathematics
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) is a professional society dedicated to applied mathematics, computational science, and data science through research, publications, and community. SIAM is the world's largest scientific society devoted to applied mathematics, and roughly twothirds of its membership resides within the United States. Founded in 1951, the organization began holding annual national meetings in 1954, and now hosts conferences, publishes books and scholarly journals, and engages in advocacy in issues of interest to its membership. Members include engineers, scientists, and mathematicians, both those employed in academia and those working in industry. The society supports educational institutions promoting applied mathematics. SIAM is one of the four member organizations of the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics. Membership Membership is open to both individuals and organizations. By the end of its first full year of operation, SIAM had 130 memb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pseudocode
In computer science, pseudocode is a plain language description of the steps in an algorithm or another system. Pseudocode often uses structural conventions of a normal programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. It typically omits details that are essential for machine understanding of the algorithm, such as variable declarations and languagespecific code. The programming language is augmented with natural language description details, where convenient, or with compact mathematical notation. The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people to understand than conventional programming language code, and that it is an efficient and environmentindependent description of the key principles of an algorithm. It is commonly used in textbooks and scientific publications to document algorithms and in planning of software and other algorithms. No broad standard for pseudocode syntax exists, as a program in pseudocode is not an executa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

System Of Linear Equations
In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of one or more linear equations involving the same variable (math), variables. For example, :\begin 3x+2yz=1\\ 2x2y+4z=2\\ x+\fracyz=0 \end is a system of three equations in the three variables . A solution to a linear system is an assignment of values to the variables such that all the equations are simultaneously satisfied. A Equation solving, solution to the system above is given by the Tuple, ordered triple :(x,y,z)=(1,2,2), since it makes all three equations valid. The word "system" indicates that the equations are to be considered collectively, rather than individually. In mathematics, the theory of linear systems is the basis and a fundamental part of linear algebra, a subject which is used in most parts of modern mathematics. Computational algorithms for finding the solutions are an important part of numerical linear algebra, and play a prominent role in engineering, physics, chemistry, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Augmented Matrix
In linear algebra, an augmented matrix is a matrix obtained by appending the columns of two given matrices, usually for the purpose of performing the same elementary row operations on each of the given matrices. Given the matrices and , where A = \begin 1 & 3 & 2 \\ 2 & 0 & 1 \\ 5 & 2 & 2 \end , \quad B = \begin 4 \\ 3 \\ 1 \end, the augmented matrix (''A'', ''B'') is written as (A, B) = \left begin 1 & 3 & 2 & 4 \\ 2 & 0 & 1 & 3 \\ 5 & 2 & 2 & 1 \end\right This is useful when solving systems of linear equations. For a given number of unknowns, the number of solutions to a system of linear equations depends only on the rank of the matrix representing the system and the rank of the corresponding augmented matrix. Specifically, according to the Rouché–Capelli theorem, any system of linear equations is inconsistent (has no solutions) if the rank of the augmented matrix is greater than the rank of the coefficient matrix; if, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

System Of Linear Equations
In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of one or more linear equations involving the same variable (math), variables. For example, :\begin 3x+2yz=1\\ 2x2y+4z=2\\ x+\fracyz=0 \end is a system of three equations in the three variables . A solution to a linear system is an assignment of values to the variables such that all the equations are simultaneously satisfied. A Equation solving, solution to the system above is given by the Tuple, ordered triple :(x,y,z)=(1,2,2), since it makes all three equations valid. The word "system" indicates that the equations are to be considered collectively, rather than individually. In mathematics, the theory of linear systems is the basis and a fundamental part of linear algebra, a subject which is used in most parts of modern mathematics. Computational algorithms for finding the solutions are an important part of numerical linear algebra, and play a prominent role in engineering, physics, chemistry, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Row Equivalence
In linear algebra, two matrices are row equivalent if one can be changed to the other by a sequence of elementary row operations. Alternatively, two ''m'' × ''n'' matrices are row equivalent if and only if they have the same row space. The concept is most commonly applied to matrices that represent systems of linear equations, in which case two matrices of the same size are row equivalent if and only if the corresponding homogeneous systems have the same set of solutions, or equivalently the matrices have the same null space. Because elementary row operations are reversible, row equivalence is an equivalence relation. It is commonly denoted by a tilde (~). There is a similar notion of column equivalence, defined by elementary column operations; two matrices are column equivalent if and only if their transpose matrices are row equivalent. Two rectangular matrices that can be converted into one another allowing both elementary row and column operations are call ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Row Space
Row or ROW may refer to: Exercise *Rowing, or a form of aquatic movement using oars *Row (weightlifting), a form of weightlifting exercise Math *Row vector, a 1 × ''n'' matrix in linear algebra. *Row (database), a single, implicitly structured data item in a table *Tone row, an arrangement of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale Other *Reality of Wrestling, an American professional wrestling promotion founded in 2005 * ''Row'' (album), an album by Gerard *Rightofway (transportation), ROW, also often R/O/W. *The Row (fashion label) Places * Rów, Pomeranian Voivodeship, north Poland *Rów, WarmianMasurian Voivodeship, north Poland *Rów, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, northwest Poland *Roswell International Air Center's IATA code * Row, a former spelling of Rhu, Dunbartonshire, Scotland *The Row (Lyme, New York), a set of historic homes *The Row, Virginia, an unincorporated community *Rest of the world or RoW See also *Row house *Controversy, sometimes called "row" in B ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elementary Row Operations
In mathematics, an elementary matrix is a matrix which differs from the identity matrix by one single elementary row operation. The elementary matrices generate the general linear group GL''n''(F) when F is a field. Left multiplication (premultiplication) by an elementary matrix represents elementary row operations, while right multiplication (postmultiplication) represents elementary column operations. Elementary row operations are used in Gaussian elimination to reduce a matrix to row echelon form. They are also used in Gauss–Jordan elimination to further reduce the matrix to reduced row echelon form. Elementary row operations There are three types of elementary matrices, which correspond to three types of row operations (respectively, column operations): ;Row switching: A row within the matrix can be switched with another row. : R_i \leftrightarrow R_j ;Row multiplication: Each element in a row can be multiplied by a nonzero constant. It is also known as ''scaling'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Division
In arithmetic, Euclidean division – or division with remainder – is the process of dividing one integer (the dividend) by another (the divisor), in a way that produces an integer quotient and a natural number remainder strictly smaller than the absolute value of the divisor. A fundamental property is that the quotient and the remainder exist and are unique, under some conditions. Because of this uniqueness, ''Euclidean division'' is often considered without referring to any method of computation, and without explicitly computing the quotient and the remainder. The methods of computation are called integer division algorithms, the best known of which being long division. Euclidean division, and algorithms to compute it, are fundamental for many questions concerning integers, such as the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two integers, and modular arithmetic, for which only remainders are considered. The operation consisting of computing only th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 