Realvalued Function
In mathematics, a realvalued function is a function whose values are real numbers. In other words, it is a function that assigns a real number to each member of its domain. Realvalued functions of a real variable (commonly called ''real functions'') and realvalued functions of several real variables are the main object of study of calculus and, more generally, real analysis. In particular, many function spaces consist of realvalued functions. Algebraic structure Let (X,) be the set of all functions from a set to real numbers \mathbb R. Because \mathbb R is a field, (X,) may be turned into a vector space and a commutative algebra over the reals with the following operations: *f+g: x \mapsto f(x) + g(x) â€“ vector addition *\mathbf: x \mapsto 0 â€“ additive identity *c f: x \mapsto c f(x),\quad c \in \mathbb R â€“ scalar multiplication *f g: x \mapsto f(x)g(x) â€“ pointwise multiplication These operations extend to partial functions from to \mathbb R, with the restricti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weights 20mg~500g
Weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. Weight or The Weight may also refer to: Mathematics * Weight (graph theory) a number associated to an edge or to a vertex of a graph * Weight (representation theory), a type of function * Weight (strings), the number of times a letter occurs in a string * Weight, an integer associated to each variable of a quasihomogeneous polynomial * Weight of a topological space; see base * Weighting, making some data contribute to a result more than others ** Weight function ** Weighted mean and weighted average, the importance can vary on each piece of data ** Weighting filter Science and technology * Weight (unit), a former English unit * Weight, a connection strength, or coefficient in a linear combination, as in an artificial neural network * Weight, a measure of paper density * Body weight, a commonly used term for the mass of an organism's body * Font weight * Line weight in contour line construction in carto ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pointwise
In mathematics, the qualifier pointwise is used to indicate that a certain property is defined by considering each value f(x) of some function f. An important class of pointwise concepts are the ''pointwise operations'', that is, operations defined on functions by applying the operations to function values separately for each point in the domain of definition. Important relations can also be defined pointwise. Pointwise operations Formal definition A binary operation on a set can be lifted pointwise to an operation on the set of all functions from to as follows: Given two functions and , define the function by Commonly, ''o'' and ''O'' are denoted by the same symbol. A similar definition is used for unary operations ''o'', and for operations of other arity. Examples \begin (f+g)(x) & = f(x)+g(x) & \text \\ (f\cdot g)(x) & = f(x) \cdot g(x) & \text \\ (\lambda \cdot f)(x) & = \lambda \cdot f(x) & \text \end where f, g : X \to R. See also pointwise product, and scalar. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topological spac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Random Variable
A random variable (also called random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable) is a mathematical formalization of a quantity or object which depends on random events. It is a mapping or a function from possible outcomes (e.g., the possible upper sides of a flipped coin such as heads H and tails T) in a sample space (e.g., the set \) to a measurable space, often the real numbers (e.g., \ in which 1 corresponding to H and 1 corresponding to T). Informally, randomness typically represents some fundamental element of chance, such as in the roll of a dice; it may also represent uncertainty, such as measurement error. However, the interpretation of probability is philosophically complicated, and even in specific cases is not always straightforward. The purely mathematical analysis of random variables is independent of such interpretational difficulties, and can be based upon a rigorous axiomatic setup. In the formal mathematical language of measure theory, a random var ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sample Space
In probability theory, the sample space (also called sample description space, possibility space, or outcome space) of an experiment or random trial is the set of all possible outcomes or results of that experiment. A sample space is usually denoted using set notation, and the possible ordered outcomes, or sample points, are listed as elements in the set. It is common to refer to a sample space by the labels ''S'', Î©, or ''U'' (for "universal set"). The elements of a sample space may be numbers, words, letters, or symbols. They can also be finite, countably infinite, or uncountably infinite. A subset of the sample space is an event, denoted by E. If the outcome of an experiment is included in E, then event E has occurred. For example, if the experiment is tossing a single coin, the sample space is the set \, where the outcome H means that the coin is heads and the outcome T means that the coin is tails. The possible events are E=\, E = \, and E = \. For tossing two coins, the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability Theory
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressing it through a set of axioms. Typically these axioms formalise probability in terms of a probability space, which assigns a measure taking values between 0 and 1, termed the probability measure, to a set of outcomes called the sample space. Any specified subset of the sample space is called an event. Central subjects in probability theory include discrete and continuous random variables, probability distributions, and stochastic processes (which provide mathematical abstractions of nondeterministic or uncertain processes or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in a random fashion). Although it is not possible to perfectly predict random events, much can be said about their behavior. Two major results in probability ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kolmogorov's Axioms
The Kolmogorov axioms are the foundations of probability theory introduced by Russian mathematician Andrey Kolmogorov in 1933. These axioms remain central and have direct contributions to mathematics, the physical sciences, and realworld probability cases. An alternative approach to formalising probability, favoured by some Bayesians, is given by Cox's theorem. Axioms The assumptions as to setting up the axioms can be summarised as follows: Let (\Omega, F, P) be a measure space with P(E) being the probability of some event E'','' and P(\Omega) = 1. Then (\Omega, F, P) is a probability space, with sample space \Omega, event space F and probability measure P. First axiom The probability of an event is a nonnegative real number: :P(E)\in\mathbb, P(E)\geq 0 \qquad \forall E \in F where F is the event space. It follows that P(E) is always finite, in contrast with more general measure theory. Theories which assign negative probability relax the first axiom. Second axiom This ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Interval (mathematics)
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Measurable Function
In mathematics and in particular measure theory, a measurable function is a function between the underlying sets of two measurable spaces that preserves the structure of the spaces: the preimage of any measurable set is measurable. This is in direct analogy to the definition that a continuous function between topological spaces preserves the topological structure: the preimage of any open set is open. In real analysis, measurable functions are used in the definition of the Lebesgue integral. In probability theory, a measurable function on a probability space is known as a random variable. Formal definition Let (X,\Sigma) and (Y,\Tau) be measurable spaces, meaning that X and Y are sets equipped with respective \sigmaalgebras \Sigma and \Tau. A function f:X\to Y is said to be measurable if for every E\in \Tau the preimage of E under f is in \Sigma; that is, for all E \in \Tau f^(E) := \ \in \Sigma. That is, \sigma (f)\subseteq\Sigma, where \sigma (f) is the Ïƒalgebra gen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Preimage
In mathematics, the image of a function is the set of all output values it may produce. More generally, evaluating a given function f at each element of a given subset A of its domain produces a set, called the "image of A under (or through) f". Similarly, the inverse image (or preimage) of a given subset B of the codomain of f, is the set of all elements of the domain that map to the members of B. Image and inverse image may also be defined for general binary relations, not just functions. Definition The word "image" is used in three related ways. In these definitions, f : X \to Y is a function from the set X to the set Y. Image of an element If x is a member of X, then the image of x under f, denoted f(x), is the value of f when applied to x. f(x) is alternatively known as the output of f for argument x. Given y, the function f is said to "" or "" if there exists some x in the function's domain such that f(x) = y. Similarly, given a set S, f is said to "" if there exi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Borel Set
In mathematics, a Borel set is any set in a topological space that can be formed from open sets (or, equivalently, from closed sets) through the operations of countable union, countable intersection, and relative complement. Borel sets are named after Ã‰mile Borel. For a topological space ''X'', the collection of all Borel sets on ''X'' forms a σalgebra, known as the Borel algebra or Borel σalgebra. The Borel algebra on ''X'' is the smallest Ïƒalgebra containing all open sets (or, equivalently, all closed sets). Borel sets are important in measure theory, since any measure defined on the open sets of a space, or on the closed sets of a space, must also be defined on all Borel sets of that space. Any measure defined on the Borel sets is called a Borel measure. Borel sets and the associated Borel hierarchy also play a fundamental role in descriptive set theory. In some contexts, Borel sets are defined to be generated by the compact sets of the topological spac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ïƒalgebra
In mathematical analysis and in probability theory, a Ïƒalgebra (also Ïƒfield) on a set ''X'' is a collection Î£ of subsets of ''X'' that includes the empty subset, is closed under complement, and is closed under countable unions and countable intersections. The pair (''X'', Î£) is called a measurable space. A Ïƒalgebra is a type of set algebra. An algebra of sets needs only to be closed under the union or intersection of ''finitely'' many subsets, which is a weaker condition. The main use of Ïƒalgebras is in the definition of measures; specifically, the collection of those subsets for which a given measure is defined is necessarily a Ïƒalgebra. This concept is important in mathematical analysis as the foundation for Lebesgue integration, and in probability theory, where it is interpreted as the collection of events which can be assigned probabilities. Also, in probability, Ïƒalgebras are pivotal in the definition of conditional expectation. In statistics, (sub) Ïƒalg ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 