Quadratic Reciprocity
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. Due to its subtlety, it has many formulations, but the most standard statement is: This law, together with its #q_=_±1_and_the_first_supplement, supplements, allows the easy calculation of any Legendre symbol, making it possible to determine whether there is an integer solution for any quadratic equation of the form x^2\equiv a \bmod p for an odd prime p; that is, to determine the "perfect squares" modulo p. However, this is a constructivism (mathematics), nonconstructive result: it gives no help at all for finding a ''specific'' solution; for this, other methods are required. For example, in the case p\equiv 3 \bmod 4 using Euler's criterion one can give an explicit formula for the "square roots" modulo p of a quadratic residue a, namely, :\pm a^ indeed, :\left (\pm a^ \right )^2=a^=a\cdot a^\equiv a\ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Reciprocity Law
In mathematics, a reciprocity law is a generalization of the law of quadratic reciprocity to arbitrary monic irreducible polynomials f(x) with integer coefficients. Recall that first reciprocity law, quadratic reciprocity, determines when an irreducible polynomial f(x) = x^2 + ax + b splits into linear terms when reduced mod p. That is, it determines for which prime numbers the relationf(x) \equiv f_p(x) = (xn_p)(xm_p) \text (\text p)holds. For a general reciprocity lawpg 3, it is defined as the rule determining which primes p the polynomial f_p splits into linear factors, denoted \text\. There are several different ways to express reciprocity laws. The early reciprocity laws found in the 19th century were usually expressed in terms of a power residue symbol (''p''/''q'') generalizing the quadratic reciprocity symbol, that describes when a prime number is an ''n''th power residue modulo another prime, and gave a relation between (''p''/''q'') and (''q''/''p''). Hilbert refo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Induction
Mathematical induction is a method for proving that a statement ''P''(''n'') is true for every natural number ''n'', that is, that the infinitely many cases ''P''(0), ''P''(1), ''P''(2), ''P''(3), ... all hold. Informal metaphors help to explain this technique, such as falling dominoes or climbing a ladder: A proof by induction consists of two cases. The first, the base case, proves the statement for ''n'' = 0 without assuming any knowledge of other cases. The second case, the induction step, proves that ''if'' the statement holds for any given case ''n'' = ''k'', ''then'' it must also hold for the next case ''n'' = ''k'' + 1. These two steps establish that the statement holds for every natural number ''n''. The base case does not necessarily begin with ''n'' = 0, but often with ''n'' = 1, and possibly with any fixed natural number ''n'' = ''N'', establishing the truth of the statement for all natu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Jacobi Symbol
Jacobi symbol for various ''k'' (along top) and ''n'' (along left side). Only are shown, since due to rule (2) below any other ''k'' can be reduced modulo ''n''. Quadratic residues are highlighted in yellow — note that no entry with a Jacobi symbol of −1 is a quadratic residue, and if ''k'' is a quadratic residue modulo a coprime ''n'', then , but not all entries with a Jacobi symbol of 1 (see the and rows) are quadratic residues. Notice also that when either ''n'' or ''k'' is a square, all values are nonnegative. The Jacobi symbol is a generalization of the Legendre symbol. Introduced by Jacobi in 1837, it is of theoretical interest in modular arithmetic and other branches of number theory, but its main use is in computational number theory, especially primality testing and integer factorization; these in turn are important in cryptography. Definition For any integer ''a'' and any positive odd integer ''n'', the Jacobi symbol is defined as the product of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert Symbol
In mathematics, the Hilbert symbol or normresidue symbol is a function (–, –) from ''K''× × ''K''× to the group of ''n''th roots of unity in a local field ''K'' such as the fields of reals or padic numbers . It is related to reciprocity laws, and can be defined in terms of the Artin symbol of local class field theory. The Hilbert symbol was introduced by in his Zahlbericht, with the slight difference that he defined it for elements of global fields rather than for the larger local fields. The Hilbert symbol has been generalized to higher local fields. Quadratic Hilbert symbol Over a local field ''K'' whose multiplicative group of nonzero elements is ''K''×, the quadratic Hilbert symbol is the function (–, –) from ''K''× × ''K''× to defined by :(a,b)=\begin+1,&\mboxz^2=ax^2+by^2\mbox(x,y,z)\in K^3;\\1,&\mbox\end Equivalently, (a, b) = 1 if and only if b is equal to the norm of an element of the quadratic extension Ksqrt/math> page 110. Properties The follo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gauss's Lemma (number Theory)
Gauss's lemma in number theory gives a condition for an integer to be a quadratic residue. Although it is not useful computationally, it has theoretical significance, being involved in some proofs of quadratic reciprocity. It made its first appearance in Carl Friedrich Gauss's third proof (1808) of quadratic reciprocity and he proved it again in his fifth proof (1818). Statement of the lemma For any odd prime let be an integer that is coprime to . Consider the integers :a, 2a, 3a, \dots, \fraca and their least positive residues modulo . These residues are all distinct, so there are ( of them. Let be the number of these residues that are greater than . Then :\left(\frac\right) = (1)^n, where \left(\frac\right) is the Legendre symbol. Example Taking = 11 and = 7, the relevant sequence of integers is : 7, 14, 21, 28, 35. After reduction modulo 11, this sequence becomes : 7, 3, 10, 6, 2. Three of these integers are larger than 11/2 (namely 6, 7 and 10), so = 3. Corresp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other results, thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chinese Remainder Theorem
In mathematics, the Chinese remainder theorem states that if one knows the remainders of the Euclidean division of an integer ''n'' by several integers, then one can determine uniquely the remainder of the division of ''n'' by the product of these integers, under the condition that the divisors are pairwise coprime (no two divisors share a common factor other than 1). For example, if we know that the remainder of ''n'' divided by 3 is 2, the remainder of ''n'' divided by 5 is 3, and the remainder of ''n'' divided by 7 is 2, then without knowing the value of ''n'', we can determine that the remainder of ''n'' divided by 105 (the product of 3, 5, and 7) is 23. Importantly, this tells us that if ''n'' is a natural number less than 105, then 23 is the only possible value of ''n''. The earliest known statement of the theorem is by the Chinese mathematician Suntzu in the '' Suntzu Suanching'' in the 3rd century CE. The Chinese remainder theorem is widely used for computing with lar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Field
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (sonamed in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod when is a prime number. The ''order'' of a finite field is its number of elements, which is either a prime number or a prime power. For every prime number and every positive integer there are fields of order p^k, all of which are isomorphic. Finite fields are fundamental in a number of areas of mathematics and computer science, including number theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, finite geometry, cryptography and coding theory. Properties A finite field is a finite set which is a field; this means that multiplication, addition, subtraction and division (excluding division by zero) are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Langlands Program
In representation theory and algebraic number theory, the Langlands program is a web of farreaching and influential conjectures about connections between number theory and geometry. Proposed by , it seeks to relate Galois groups in algebraic number theory to automorphic forms and representation theory of algebraic groups over local fields and adeles. Widely seen as the single biggest project in modern mathematical research, the Langlands program has been described by Edward Frenkel as "a kind of grand unified theory of mathematics." The Langlands program consists of some very complicated theoretical abstractions, which can be difficult even for specialist mathematicians to grasp. To oversimplify, the fundamental lemma of the project posits a direct connection between the generalized fundamental representation of a finite field with its group extension to the automorphic forms under which it is invariant. This is accomplished through abstraction to higher dimensional integrati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Class Field Theory
In mathematics, class field theory (CFT) is the fundamental branch of algebraic number theory whose goal is to describe all the abelian Galois extensions of local and global fields using objects associated to the ground field. Hilbert is credited as one of pioneers of the notion of a class field. However, this notion was already familiar to Kronecker and it was actually Weber who coined the term before Hilbert's fundamental papers came out. The relevant ideas were developed in the period of several decades, giving rise to a set of conjectures by Hilbert that were subsequently proved by Takagi and Artin (with the help of Chebotarev's theorem). One of the major results is: given a number field ''F'', and writing ''K'' for the maximal abelian unramified extension of ''F'', the Galois group of ''K'' over ''F'' is canonically isomorphic to the ideal class group of ''F''. This statement was generalized to the so called Artin reciprocity law; in the idelic language, writing ''C ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 