PseudoEuclidean Space
In mathematics and theoretical physics, a pseudoEuclidean space is a finitedimensional real space together with a nondegenerate quadratic form . Such a quadratic form can, given a suitable choice of basis , be applied to a vector , giving q(x) = \left(x_1^2 + \dots + x_k^2\right)  \left( x_^2 + \dots + x_n^2\right) which is called the ''scalar square'' of the vector . For Euclidean spaces, , implying that the quadratic form is positivedefinite. When , is an isotropic quadratic form, otherwise it is ''anisotropic''. Note that if , then , so that is a null vector. In a pseudoEuclidean space with , unlike in a Euclidean space, there exist vectors with negative scalar square. As with the term ''Euclidean space'', the term ''pseudoEuclidean space'' may be used to refer to an affine space or a vector space depending on the author, with the latter alternatively being referred to as a pseudoEuclidean vector space (see point–vector distinction). Geometry The geometry of a p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Affine Geometry
In mathematics, affine geometry is what remains of Euclidean geometry when ignoring (mathematicians often say "forgetting") the metric notions of distance and angle. As the notion of ''parallel lines'' is one of the main properties that is independent of any metric, affine geometry is often considered as the study of parallel lines. Therefore, Playfair's axiom (Given a line L and a point P not on L, there is exactly one line parallel to L that passes through P.) is fundamental in affine geometry. Comparisons of figures in affine geometry are made with affine transformations, which are mappings that preserve alignment of points and parallelism of lines. Affine geometry can be developed in two ways that are essentially equivalent. In synthetic geometry, an affine space is a set of ''points'' to which is associated a set of lines, which satisfy some axioms (such as Playfair's axiom). Affine geometry can also be developed on the basis of linear algebra. In this context an affine s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Standard Topology
In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension , denoted ( ) or is the set of the tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of real numbers. With componentwise addition and scalar multiplication, it is a real vector space, and its elements are called coordinate vectors. The coordinates over any basis of the elements of a real vector space form a ''real coordinate space'' of the same dimension as that of the vector space. Similarly, the Cartesian coordinates of the points of a Euclidean space of dimension form a ''real coordinate space'' of dimension . These one to one correspondences between vectors, points and coordinate vectors explain the names of ''coordinate space'' and ''coordinate vector''. It allows using geometric terms and methods for studying real coordinate spaces, and, conversely, to use methods of calculus in geometry. This approach of geometry was introduced by René Descartes in the 17th century. It is widely used, as it allows loca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Set
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are sufficiently near to (that is, all points whose distance to is less than some value depending on ). More generally, one defines open sets as the members of a given collection of subsets of a given set, a collection that has the property of containing every union of its members, every finite intersection of its members, the empty set, and the whole set itself. A set in which such a collection is given is called a topological space, and the collection is called a topology. These conditions are very loose, and allow enormous flexibility in the choice of open sets. For example, ''every'' subset can be open (the discrete topology), or no set can be open except the space itself and the empty set (the indiscrete topology). In practice, however, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Light Cone
In special and general relativity, a light cone (or "null cone") is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime. Details If one imagines the light confined to a twodimensional plane, the light from the flash spreads out in a circle after the event E occurs, and if we graph the growing circle with the vertical axis of the graph representing time, the result is a cone, known as the future light cone. The past light cone behaves like the future light cone in reverse, a circle which contracts in radius at the speed of light until it converges to a point at the exact position and time of the event E. In reality, there are three space dimensions, so the light would actually form an expanding or contracting sphere in threedimensional (3D) space rather than a circle in 2D, and the light cone would actually be a fourdimensional version of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Examples
Example may refer to: * '' exempli gratia'' (e.g.), usually read out in English as "for example" * .example, reserved as a domain name that may not be installed as a toplevel domain of the Internet ** example.com, example.net, example.org, example.edu, secondlevel domain names reserved for use in documentation as examples * HMS ''Example'' (P165), an Archerclass patrol and training vessel of the Royal Navy Arts * ''The Example'', a 1634 play by James Shirley * ''The Example'' (comics), a 2009 graphic novel by Tom Taylor and Colin Wilson * Example (musician), the British dance musician Elliot John Gleave (born 1982) * ''Example'' (album), a 1995 album by American rock band For Squirrels See also * * Exemplar (other), a prototype or model which others can use to understand a topic better * Exemplum, medieval collections of short stories to be told in sermons * Eixample The Eixample (; ) is a district of Barcelona between the old city (Ciutat Vella) and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spacetime
In physics, spacetime is a mathematical model that combines the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time into a single fourdimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects, such as why different observers perceive differently where and when events occur. Until the 20th century, it was assumed that the threedimensional geometry of the universe (its spatial expression in terms of coordinates, distances, and directions) was independent of onedimensional time. The physicist Albert Einstein helped develop the idea of spacetime as part of his theory of relativity. Prior to his pioneering work, scientists had two separate theories to explain physical phenomena: Isaac Newton's laws of physics described the motion of massive objects, while James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic models explained the properties of light. However, in 1905, Einstein based a work on special relativity on two postulates: * The laws of physics are invariant ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Cone
In linear algebra, a ''cone''—sometimes called a linear cone for distinguishing it from other sorts of cones—is a subset of a vector space that is closed under scalar multiplication; that is, is a cone if x\in C implies sx\in C for every . When the scalars are real numbers, or belong to an ordered field, one generally calls a cone a subset of a vector space that is closed under multiplication by a ''positive scalar''. In this context, a convex cone is a cone that is closed under addition, or, equivalently, a subset of a vector space that is closed under linear combinations with positive coefficients. It follows that convex cones are convex sets. In this article, only the case of scalars in an ordered field is considered. Definition A subset ''C'' of a vector space ''V'' over an ordered field ''F'' is a cone (or sometimes called a linear cone) if for each ''x'' in ''C'' and positive scalar ''α'' in ''F'', the product ''αx'' is in ''C''. Note that some authors define con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthogonality
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the geometric notion of ''perpendicularity''. By extension, orthogonality is also used to refer to the separation of specific features of a system. The term also has specialized meanings in other fields including art and chemistry. Etymology The word comes from the Ancient Greek ('), meaning "upright", and ('), meaning "angle". The Ancient Greek (') and Classical Latin ' originally denoted a rectangle. Later, they came to mean a right triangle. In the 12th century, the postclassical Latin word ''orthogonalis'' came to mean a right angle or something related to a right angle. Mathematics Physics * In optics, polarization states are said to be orthogonal when they propagate independently of each other, as in vertical and horizontal linear polarization or right and lefthanded circular polarization. * In special relativity, a time axis determined by a rapidity of motion is hyperbolicorthogonal to a space axis of simu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Line Segment
In geometry, a line segment is a part of a straight line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line that is between its endpoints. The length of a line segment is given by the Euclidean distance between its endpoints. A closed line segment includes both endpoints, while an open line segment excludes both endpoints; a halfopen line segment includes exactly one of the endpoints. In geometry, a line segment is often denoted using a line above the symbols for the two endpoints (such as \overline). Examples of line segments include the sides of a triangle or square. More generally, when both of the segment's end points are vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, the line segment is either an edge (geometry), edge (of that polygon or polyhedron) if they are adjacent vertices, or a diagonal. When the end points both lie on a curve (such as a circle), a line segment is called a chord (geometry), chord (of that curve). In real or complex vector spa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Flat (geometry)
In geometry, a flat or Euclidean subspace is a subset of a Euclidean space that is itself a Euclidean space (of lower dimension). The flats in twodimensional space are points and lines, and the flats in threedimensional space are points, lines, and planes. In a dimensional space, there are flats of every dimension from 0 to ; flats of dimension are called ''hyperplanes''. Flats are the affine subspaces of Euclidean spaces, which means that they are similar to linear subspaces, except that they need not pass through the origin. Flats occur in linear algebra, as geometric realizations of solution sets of systems of linear equations. A flat is a manifold and an algebraic variety, and is sometimes called a ''linear manifold'' or ''linear variety'' to distinguish it from other manifolds or varieties. Descriptions By equations A flat can be described by a system of linear equations. For example, a line in twodimensional space can be described by a single linear equation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 