Projectively Extended Real Line
In real analysis, the projectively extended real line (also called the onepoint compactification of the real line), is the extension of the set of the real numbers, \mathbb, by a point denoted . It is thus the set \mathbb\cup\ with the standard arithmetic operations extended where possible, and is sometimes denoted by \widehat. The added point is called the point at infinity, because it is considered as a neighbour of both ends of the real line. More precisely, the point at infinity is the limit of every sequence of real numbers whose absolute values are increasing and unbounded. The projectively extended real line may be identified with a real projective line in which three points have been assigned the specific values , and . The projectively extended real number line is distinct from the affinely extended real number line, in which and are distinct. Dividing by zero Unlike most mathematical models of the intuitive concept of 'number', this structure allows division by ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Projective Line
In geometry, a real projective line is a projective line over the real numbers. It is an extension of the usual concept of a line (geometry), line that has been historically introduced to solve a problem set by visual perspective (visual), perspective: two parallel lines do not intersect but seem to intersect "at infinity". For solving this problem, points at infinity have been introduced, in such a way that in a real projective plane, two distinct projective lines meet in exactly one point. The set of these points at infinity, the "horizon" of the visual perspective in the plane, is a real projective line. It is the set of directions emanating from an observer situated at any point, with opposite directions identified. An example of a real projective line is the projectively extended real line, which is often called ''the'' projective line. Formally, a real projective line P(R) is defined as the set of all onedimensional linear subspaces of a twodimensional vector space ove ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Slope
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the ''direction'' and the ''steepness'' of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter ''m''; there is no clear answer to the question why the letter ''m'' is used for slope, but its earliest use in English appears in O'Brien (1844) who wrote the equation of a straight line as and it can also be found in Todhunter (1888) who wrote it as "''y'' = ''mx'' + ''c''". Slope is calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line. Sometimes the ratio is expressed as a quotient ("rise over run"), giving the same number for every two distinct points on the same line. A line that is decreasing has a negative "rise". The line may be practical – as set by a road surveyor, or in a diagram that models a road or a roof either as a description or as a plan. The ''steepness'', incline, or grade of a line is measured by the absolute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projective Line
In mathematics, a projective line is, roughly speaking, the extension of a usual line by a point called a ''point at infinity''. The statement and the proof of many theorems of geometry are simplified by the resultant elimination of special cases; for example, two distinct projective lines in a projective plane meet in exactly one point (there is no "parallel" case). There are many equivalent ways to formally define a projective line; one of the most common is to define a projective line over a field ''K'', commonly denoted P1(''K''), as the set of onedimensional subspaces of a twodimensional ''K''vector space. This definition is a special instance of the general definition of a projective space. The projective line over the reals is a manifold; see real projective line for details. Homogeneous coordinates An arbitrary point in the projective line P1(''K'') may be represented by an equivalence class of ''homogeneous coordinates'', which take the form of a pair : _1 : x_2/mat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Crossratio
In geometry, the crossratio, also called the double ratio and anharmonic ratio, is a number associated with a list of four collinear points, particularly points on a projective line. Given four points ''A'', ''B'', ''C'' and ''D'' on a line, their cross ratio is defined as : (A,B;C,D) = \frac where an orientation of the line determines the sign of each distance and the distance is measured as projected into Euclidean space. (If one of the four points is the line's point at infinity, then the two distances involving that point are dropped from the formula.) The point ''D'' is the harmonic conjugate of ''C'' with respect to ''A'' and ''B'' precisely if the crossratio of the quadruple is −1, called the ''harmonic ratio''. The crossratio can therefore be regarded as measuring the quadruple's deviation from this ratio; hence the name ''anharmonic ratio''. The crossratio is preserved by linear fractional transformations. It is essentially the only projective invarian ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Möbius Transformation
In geometry and complex analysis, a Möbius transformation of the complex plane is a rational function of the form f(z) = \frac of one complex variable ''z''; here the coefficients ''a'', ''b'', ''c'', ''d'' are complex numbers satisfying ''ad'' − ''bc'' ≠ 0. Geometrically, a Möbius transformation can be obtained by first performing stereographic projection from the plane to the unit twosphere, rotating and moving the sphere to a new location and orientation in space, and then performing stereographic projection (from the new position of the sphere) to the plane. These transformations preserve angles, map every straight line to a line or circle, and map every circle to a line or circle. The Möbius transformations are the projective transformations of the complex projective line. They form a group called the Möbius group, which is the projective linear group PGL(2,C). Together with its subgroups, it has numerous applications in mathematics and physics. Möbius transfor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Action (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group action on a space is a group homomorphism of a given group into the group of transformations of the space. Similarly, a group action on a mathematical structure is a group homomorphism of a group into the automorphism group of the structure. It is said that the group ''acts'' on the space or structure. If a group acts on a structure, it will usually also act on objects built from that structure. For example, the group of Euclidean isometries acts on Euclidean space and also on the figures drawn in it. For example, it acts on the set of all triangles. Similarly, the group of symmetries of a polyhedron acts on the vertices, the edges, and the faces of the polyhedron. A group action on a vector space is called a representation of the group. In the case of a finitedimensional vector space, it allows one to identify many groups with subgroups of , the group of the invertible matrices of dimension over a field . The symmetric group acts on any set wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transitive Action
In mathematics, a group action on a space is a group homomorphism of a given group into the group of transformations of the space. Similarly, a group action on a mathematical structure is a group homomorphism of a group into the automorphism group of the structure. It is said that the group ''acts'' on the space or structure. If a group acts on a structure, it will usually also act on objects built from that structure. For example, the group of Euclidean isometries acts on Euclidean space and also on the figures drawn in it. For example, it acts on the set of all triangles. Similarly, the group of symmetries of a polyhedron acts on the vertices, the edges, and the faces of the polyhedron. A group action on a vector space is called a representation of the group. In the case of a finitedimensional vector space, it allows one to identify many groups with subgroups of , the group of the invertible matrices of dimension over a field . The symmetric group acts on any set wit ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Invertible
In mathematics, the concept of an inverse element generalises the concepts of opposite () and reciprocal () of numbers. Given an operation denoted here , and an identity element denoted , if , one says that is a left inverse of , and that is a right inverse of . (An identity element is an element such that and for all and for which the lefthand sides are defined.) When the operation is associative, if an element has both a left inverse and a right inverse, then these two inverses are equal and unique; they are called the ''inverse element'' or simply the ''inverse''. Often an adjective is added for specifying the operation, such as in additive inverse, multiplicative inverse, and functional inverse. In this case (associative operation), an invertible element is an element that has an inverse. Inverses are commonly used in groupswhere every element is invertible, and ringswhere invertible elements are also called units. They are also commonly used for operations that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

General Linear Group
In mathematics, the general linear group of degree ''n'' is the set of invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication. This forms a group, because the product of two invertible matrices is again invertible, and the inverse of an invertible matrix is invertible, with identity matrix as the identity element of the group. The group is so named because the columns (and also the rows) of an invertible matrix are linearly independent, hence the vectors/points they define are in general linear position, and matrices in the general linear group take points in general linear position to points in general linear position. To be more precise, it is necessary to specify what kind of objects may appear in the entries of the matrix. For example, the general linear group over R (the set of real numbers) is the group of invertible matrices of real numbers, and is denoted by GL''n''(R) or . More generally, the general linear group of degree ''n'' over any ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Circle
A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. Equivalently, it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. Usually, the radius is required to be a positive number. A circle with r=0 (a single point) is a degenerate case. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a '' disc''. A circle may also be defined as a special ki ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homeomorphism
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word ''homeomorphism'' comes from the Greek words '' ὅμοιος'' (''homoios'') = similar or same and '' μορφή'' (''morphē'') = shape or form, introduced to mathematics by Henri Poincaré in 1895. Very roughly speaking, a topological space is a geometric object, and the homeomorphism is a continuous stretching and bending of the object into a new shape. Thus, a square and a circle are homeomorphic to each other, but a sphere and a torus are not. However, this desc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homogeneous Space
In mathematics, particularly in the theories of Lie groups, algebraic groups and topological groups, a homogeneous space for a group ''G'' is a nonempty manifold or topological space ''X'' on which ''G'' acts transitively. The elements of ''G'' are called the symmetries of ''X''. A special case of this is when the group ''G'' in question is the automorphism group of the space ''X'' – here "automorphism group" can mean isometry group, diffeomorphism group, or homeomorphism group. In this case, ''X'' is homogeneous if intuitively ''X'' looks locally the same at each point, either in the sense of isometry (rigid geometry), diffeomorphism (differential geometry), or homeomorphism (topology). Some authors insist that the action of ''G'' be faithful (nonidentity elements act nontrivially), although the present article does not. Thus there is a group action of ''G'' on ''X'' which can be thought of as preserving some "geometric structure" on ''X'', and making ''X'' into a singl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 