Principal Ideal Domain
In mathematics, a principal ideal domain, or PID, is an integral domain in which every ideal is principal, i.e., can be generated by a single element. More generally, a principal ideal ring is a nonzero commutative ring whose ideals are principal, although some authors (e.g., Bourbaki) refer to PIDs as principal rings. The distinction is that a principal ideal ring may have zero divisors whereas a principal ideal domain cannot. Principal ideal domains are thus mathematical objects that behave somewhat like the integers, with respect to divisibility: any element of a PID has a unique decomposition into prime elements (so an analogue of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic holds); any two elements of a PID have a greatest common divisor (although it may not be possible to find it using the Euclidean algorithm). If and are elements of a PID without common divisors, then every element of the PID can be written in the form . Principal ideal domains are noetherian, they are integra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other results, thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Math
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Module
In mathematics, a free module is a module that has a basis – that is, a generating set consisting of linearly independent elements. Every vector space is a free module, but, if the ring of the coefficients is not a division ring (not a field in the commutative case), then there exist nonfree modules. Given any set and ring , there is a free module with basis , which is called the ''free module on'' or ''module of formal'' ''linear combinations'' of the elements of . A free abelian group is precisely a free module over the ring of integers. Definition For a ring R and an Rmodule M, the set E\subseteq M is a basis for M if: * E is a generating set for M; that is to say, every element of M is a finite sum of elements of E multiplied by coefficients in R; and * E is linearly independent, that is, for every subset \ of distinct elements of E, r_1 e_1 + r_2 e_2 + \cdots + r_n e_n = 0_M implies that r_1 = r_2 = \cdots = r_n = 0_R (where 0_M is the zero element of M and 0_R is t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Class Number (number Theory)
In number theory, the ideal class group (or class group) of an algebraic number field is the quotient group where is the group of fractional ideals of the ring of integers of , and is its subgroup of principal ideals. The class group is a measure of the extent to which unique factorization fails in the ring of integers of . The order of the group, which is finite, is called the class number of . The theory extends to Dedekind domains and their field of fractions, for which the multiplicative properties are intimately tied to the structure of the class group. For example, the class group of a Dedekind domain is trivial if and only if the ring is a unique factorization domain. History and origin of the ideal class group Ideal class groups (or, rather, what were effectively ideal class groups) were studied some time before the idea of an ideal was formulated. These groups appeared in the theory of quadratic forms: in the case of binary integral quadratic forms, as put into s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Root Of Unity
In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a Abraham de Moivre, de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when exponentiation, raised to some positive integer power . Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematics, and are especially important in number theory, the theory of group characters, and the discrete Fourier transform. Roots of unity can be defined in any field (mathematics), field. If the characteristic of a field, characteristic of the field is zero, the roots are complex numbers that are also algebraic integers. For fields with a positive characteristic, the roots belong to a finite field, and, converse (logic), conversely, every nonzero element of a finite field is a root of unity. Any algebraically closed field contains exactly th roots of unity, except when is a multiple of the (positive) characteristic of the field. General definition An ''th root of unity'', where is a positive integer, is a number satisfying the equation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ring Of Algebraic Integers
In algebraic number theory, an algebraic integer is a complex number which is Integral element, integral over the Integer#Algebraic properties, integers. That is, an algebraic integer is a complex root of a polynomial, root of some monic polynomial (a polynomial whose leading coefficient is 1) whose coefficients are integers. The set of all algebraic integers is closed under addition, subtraction and multiplication and therefore is a commutative ring, commutative subring of the complex numbers. The ring of integers of a number field , denoted by , is the intersection (set theory), intersection of and : it can also be characterised as the maximal Order (ring theory), order of the field (mathematics), field . Each algebraic integer belongs to the ring of integers of some number field. A number is an algebraic integer if and only if the ring \mathbb[\alpha] is finitely generated abelian group, finitely generated as an abelian group, which is to say, as a \mathbbmodule (mathemat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial Ring
In mathematics, especially in the field of algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field. Often, the term "polynomial ring" refers implicitly to the special case of a polynomial ring in one indeterminate over a field. The importance of such polynomial rings relies on the high number of properties that they have in common with the ring of the integers. Polynomial rings occur and are often fundamental in many parts of mathematics such as number theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry. In ring theory, many classes of rings, such as unique factorization domains, regular rings, group rings, rings of formal power series, Ore polynomials, graded rings, have been introduced for generalizing some properties of polynomial rings. A closely related notion is that of the ring ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Padic Integer
In mathematics, the adic number system for any prime number extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems. The extension is achieved by an alternative interpretation of the concept of "closeness" or absolute value. In particular, two adic numbers are considered to be close when their difference is divisible by a high power of : the higher the power, the closer they are. This property enables adic numbers to encode congruence information in a way that turns out to have powerful applications in number theory – including, for example, in the famous proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles. These numbers were first described by Kurt Hensel in 1897, though, with hindsight, some of Ernst Kummer's earlier work can be interpreted as implicitly using adic numbers.Translator's introductionpage 35 "Indeed, with hindsight it becomes apparent that a discret ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discrete Valuation Ring
In abstract algebra, a discrete valuation ring (DVR) is a principal ideal domain (PID) with exactly one nonzero maximal ideal. This means a DVR is an integral domain ''R'' which satisfies any one of the following equivalent conditions: # ''R'' is a local principal ideal domain, and not a field. # ''R'' is a valuation ring with a value group isomorphic to the integers under addition. # ''R'' is a local Dedekind domain and not a field. # ''R'' is a Noetherian local domain whose maximal ideal is principal, and not a field.https://mathoverflow.net/a/155639/114772 # ''R'' is an integrally closed Noetherian local ring with Krull dimension one. # ''R'' is a principal ideal domain with a unique nonzero prime ideal. # ''R'' is a principal ideal domain with a unique irreducible element ( up to multiplication by units). # ''R'' is a unique factorization domain with a unique irreducible element (up to multiplication by units). # ''R'' is Noetherian, not a field, and every nonzero fractio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Eisenstein Integers
In mathematics, the Eisenstein integers (named after Gotthold Eisenstein), occasionally also known as Eulerian integers (after Leonhard Euler), are the complex numbers of the form :z = a + b\omega , where and are integers and :\omega = \frac = e^ is a primitive (hence nonreal) cube root of unity. The Eisenstein integers form a triangular lattice in the complex plane, in contrast with the Gaussian integers, which form a square lattice in the complex plane. The Eisenstein integers are a countably infinite set. Properties The Eisenstein integers form a commutative ring of algebraic integers in the algebraic number field \mathbb(\omega) — the third cyclotomic field. To see that the Eisenstein integers are algebraic integers note that each is a root of the monic polynomial :z^2  (2a  b)\;\!z + \left(a^2  ab + b^2\right)~. In particular, satisfies the equation :\omega^2 + \omega + 1 = 0~. The product of two Eisenstein integers and is given explicitly by :(a + b\;\! ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaussian Integers
In number theory, a Gaussian integer is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are both integers. The Gaussian integers, with ordinary addition and multiplication of complex numbers, form an integral domain, usually written as \mathbf /math> or \Z Gaussian integers share many properties with integers: they form a Euclidean domain, and have thus a Euclidean division and a Euclidean algorithm; this implies unique factorization and many related properties. However, Gaussian integers do not have a total ordering that respects arithmetic. Gaussian integers are algebraic integers and form the simplest ring of quadratic integers. Gaussian integers are named after the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Basic definitions The Gaussian integers are the set :\mathbf \, \qquad \text i^2 = 1. In other words, a Gaussian integer is a complex number such that its real and imaginary parts are both integers. Since the Gaussian integers are closed under addition and multipl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 