Perpetual Motion Machines
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Perpetual Motion Machines
Perpetual motion is the motion of bodies that continues forever in an unperturbed system. A perpetual motion machine is a hypothetical machine that can do work infinitely without an external energy source. This kind of machine is impossible, as it would violate either the first or second law of thermodynamics or both. These laws of thermodynamics apply regardless of the size of the system. For example, the motions and rotations of celestial bodies such as planets may appear perpetual, but are actually subject to many processes that slowly dissipate their kinetic energy, such as solar wind, interstellar medium resistance, gravitational radiation and thermal radiation, so they will not keep moving forever. Thus, machines that extract energy from finite sources will not operate indefinitely, because they are driven by the energy stored in the source, which will eventually be exhausted. A common example is devices powered by ocean currents, whose energy is ultimately derived from ...
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Conservation Of Energy
In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be ''conserved'' over time. This law, first proposed and tested by Émilie du Châtelet, means that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can only be transformed or transferred from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when a stick of dynamite explodes. If one adds up all forms of energy that were released in the explosion, such as the kinetic energy and potential energy of the pieces, as well as heat and sound, one will get the exact decrease of chemical energy in the combustion of the dynamite. Classically, conservation of energy was distinct from conservation of mass. However, special relativity shows that mass is related to energy and vice versa by ''E = mc2'', and science now takes the view that mass-energy as a whole is conserved. Theoretically, this implies that an ...
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Epistemic Possibility
In philosophy and modal logic, epistemic possibility relates a statement under consideration to the current state of our knowledge about the actual world: a statement is said to be: * ''epistemically possible'' if it ''may be true, for all we know'' * ''epistemically necessary'' if it is ''certain'' (or ''must be the case), given what we know'' * ''epistemically impossible'' if it ''cannot be true, given what we know'' Epistemic possibility is often contrasted with subjunctive possibility (or alethic possibility), and although epistemic and subjunctive possibilities are often expressed using the same modal terms (such as ''possibly'', ''could be'', ''must be'') or similar modal terms that are sometimes confused (such as ''may be'' and ''might be''), statements that are qualified in terms of epistemic possibility and statements that are qualified in terms of subjunctive possibility have importantly different meanings. The contrast is best explained by example. Consider the two ...
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Perpetual Motion By Norman Rockwell
Perpetual, meaning "eternal", may refer to: Christianity * Perpetual curacy, a type of Christian priesthood in Anglicanism * Perpetual virginity of Mary, one of the four Marian dogmas in Catholicism Finance *Perpetual bond, a bond that pays coupons forever *Perpetual plc, a British investment management company which became Invesco Perpetual * Perpetual Limited, an Australian diversified financials company *Perpetuity, a perpetual asset Other *Perpetual Entertainment, an American software development company *Perpetual Maritime Truce, the treaty defining peaceful relations in the Trucial States, today the United Arab Emirates. * Perpetual motion (other) *Perpetual Union The Perpetual Union is a feature of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, which established the United States of America as a political entity. Under modern American constitutional law this means that U.S. states are not permitted t ..., a concept in American constitutional law and ...
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Low Friction
Low or LOW or lows, may refer to: People * Low (surname), listing people surnamed Low Places * Low, Quebec, Canada * Low, Utah, United States * Lo Wu station (MTR code LOW), Hong Kong; a rail station * Salzburg Airport (ICAO airport code: LOWS), Austria Music * Low (band), an American indie rock group from Duluth, Minnesota Albums * ''Low'' (David Bowie album), 1977 * ''Low'' (Testament album), 1994 * ''Low'' (Low EP), 1994 Songs * "Low" (Cracker song), 1993 * "Low" (Flo Rida song), 2007 * "Low" (Foo Fighters song), 2002 * "Low" (Juicy J song), 2014 * "Low" (Kelly Clarkson song), 2003 * "Low" (Lenny Kravitz song), 2018 * "Low" (Sara Evans song), 2008 * "Low", by Camp Mulla * "Low", by Coldplay from '' X&Y'' * "Low", by Inna from the self-titled album * "Low", by Marianas Trench from ''Fix Me'' * "Low", by R.E.M. from '' Out of Time'' * "Low", by Silverchair from ''Young Modern'' * "Low", by Sleeping with Sirens from ''Feel'' * "Low", by Tech N9ne from '' K.O.D.'' ...
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Third Law Of Thermodynamics
The third law of thermodynamics states, regarding the properties of closed systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: This constant value cannot depend on any other parameters characterizing the closed system, such as pressure or applied magnetic field. At absolute zero (zero kelvins) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy. Entropy is related to the number of accessible microstates, and there is typically one unique state (called the ground state) with minimum energy. In such a case, the entropy at absolute zero will be exactly zero. If the system does not have a well-defined order (if its order is glassy, for example), then there may remain some finite entropy as the system is brought to very low temperatures, either because the system becomes locked into a configuration with non-minimal energy or because the minimum energy state is non-unique. The constant value is called the residual entropy of the system. The entropy is essentially a state-function meaning t ...
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Entropy
Entropy is a scientific concept, as well as a measurable physical property, that is most commonly associated with a state of disorder, randomness, or uncertainty. The term and the concept are used in diverse fields, from classical thermodynamics, where it was first recognized, to the microscopic description of nature in statistical physics, and to the principles of information theory. It has found far-ranging applications in chemistry and physics, in biological systems and their relation to life, in cosmology, economics, sociology, weather science, climate change, and information systems including the transmission of information in telecommunication. The thermodynamic concept was referred to by Scottish scientist and engineer William Rankine in 1850 with the names ''thermodynamic function'' and ''heat-potential''. In 1865, German physicist Rudolf Clausius, one of the leading founders of the field of thermodynamics, defined it as the quotient of an infinitesimal amount of h ...
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Law Of Conservation Of Energy
In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be ''conserved'' over time. This law, first proposed and tested by Émilie du Châtelet, means that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it can only be transformed or transferred from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when a stick of dynamite explodes. If one adds up all forms of energy that were released in the explosion, such as the kinetic energy and potential energy of the pieces, as well as heat and sound, one will get the exact decrease of chemical energy in the combustion of the dynamite. Classically, conservation of energy was distinct from conservation of mass. However, special relativity shows that mass is related to energy and vice versa by ''E = mc2'', and science now takes the view that mass-energy as a whole is conserved. Theoretically, this implies that any o ...
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