Peptide
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Peptide
Peptides (from Greek language πεπτός, ''peptós'' "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, ''péssein'' "to digest") are short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Chains of fewer than ten or fifteen amino acids are called oligopeptides, and include dipeptides, tripeptides, and tetrapeptides. A polypeptide is a longer, continuous, unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biopolymer, biological polymers and oligomers, alongside nucleic acids, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and others. A polypeptide that contains more than approximately fifty amino acids is known as a protein. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way, often bound to ligand (biochemistry), ligands such as coenzymes and cofactor (biochemistry), cofactors, or to another protein or other macromolecule such as DNA or RNA, or to complex macromolecular assemblies. Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptide ...
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Antimicrobial Peptides
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates Vertebrates () comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata () (chordates with vertebral column, backbones). Vertebrates represent the o ... found among all classes of life. Fundamental differences exist between prokaryotic A prokaryote is a typically unicellular organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a syn ... and eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), tax ... cells that may represent tar ...
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Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including Enzyme catalysis, catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, Cell signaling, responding to stimuli, providing Cytoskeleton, structure to cells and Scleroprotein, organisms, and Intracellular transport, transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the Nucleic acid sequence, nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific Protein structure, 3D structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptide ...
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Amino Acid
Amino acids are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, catenate (form chains with other carbon ...s that contain amino In organic chemistry, amines (, ) are compounds and functional group In organic chemistry, a functional group is a substituent or moiety in a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pent ... (–NH2) and carboxyl A carboxylic acid is an organic acid that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH) attached to an R-group. The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R−COOH or R−CO2H, with substituent, R referring to the alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, or other group. ... (–COOH) functional group In organic chemistry, a functional group is a substituent or moiety in a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A s ...
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Peptide Bond
In organic chemistry, a peptide bond is an amide type of Covalent bond, covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from C1 (carbon number one) of one alpha-amino acid and N2 (nitrogen number two) of another, along a peptide or protein chain. It can also be called an eupeptide bond to separate it from an isopeptide bond, a different type of amide bond between two amino acids. Synthesis When two amino acids form a ''dipeptide'' through a ''peptide bond'', it is a type of condensation reaction. In this kind of condensation, two amino acids approach each other, with the non-side chain (C1) carboxylic acid Functional group, moiety of one coming near the non-side chain (N2) amino moiety of the other. One loses a hydrogen and oxygen from its carboxyl group (COOH) and the other loses a hydrogen from its amino group (NH2). This reaction produces a molecule of water (H2O) and two amino acids joined by a peptide bond (-CO-NH-). The two joined amino acids are called a di ...
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Peptide Hormones
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormone A hormone (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...s whose molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bo ...s are peptide Peptides (from Greek language πεπτός, ''peptós'' "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, ''péssein'' "to digest") are short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Chains of fewer than ten or fifteen amino acids are called oligopep ...s or protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Protei ...
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