Orthogonal Complement
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 Orthogonal Complement In the mathematical fields of linear algebra and functional analysis, the orthogonal complement of a subspace ''W'' of a vector space ''V'' equipped with a bilinear form ''B'' is the set ''W''⊥ of all vectors in ''V'' that are orthogonal to every vector in ''W''. Informally, it is called the perp, short for perpendicular complement. It is a subspace of ''V''. Example Let V = (\R^5, \langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle) be the vector space equipped with the usual dot product \langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle (thus making it an inner product space), and let W = \, with A = \begin 1 & 0\\ 0 & 1\\ 2 & 6\\ 3 & 9\\ 5 & 3\\ \end. then its orthogonal complement W^\perp = \ can also be defined as W^\perp = \, being \tilde = \begin -2 & -3 & -5 \\ -6 & -9 & -3 \\ 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end. The fact that every column vector in A is orthogonal to every column vector in \tilde can be checked by direct computation. The fact that the spans of these vectors are orthogonal then follows by b ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Non-degenerate In mathematics, specifically linear algebra, a degenerate bilinear form on a vector space ''V'' is a bilinear form such that the map from ''V'' to ''V''∗ (the dual space of ''V'' ) given by is not an isomorphism. An equivalent definition when ''V'' is dimension (vector space), finite-dimensional is that it has a non-trivial kernel: there exist some non-zero ''x'' in ''V'' such that :f(x,y)=0\, for all \,y \in V. Nondegenerate forms A nondegenerate or nonsingular form is a bilinear form that is not degenerate, meaning that v \mapsto (x \mapsto f(x,v)) is an isomorphism, or equivalently in finite dimensions, if and only if :f(x,y)=0 for all y \in V implies that x = 0. The most important examples of nondegenerate forms are inner products and symplectic forms. Symmetric bilinear form, Symmetric nondegenerate forms are important generalizations of inner products, in that often all that is required is that the map V \to V^* be an isomorphism, not positivity. For example, a ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Null Space In mathematics, the kernel of a linear map, also known as the null space or nullspace, is the linear subspace of the domain of the map which is mapped to the zero vector. That is, given a linear map between two vector spaces and , the kernel of is the vector space of all elements of such that , where denotes the zero vector in , or more symbolically: :\ker(L) = \left\ . Properties The kernel of is a linear subspace of the domain .Linear algebra, as discussed in this article, is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. Almost all of the material in this article can be found in , , and Strang's lectures. In the linear map L : V \to W, two elements of have the same image in if and only if their difference lies in the kernel of , that is, L\left(\mathbf_1\right) = L\left(\mathbf_2\right) \quad \text \quad L\left(\mathbf_1-\mathbf_2\right) = \mathbf. From this, it follows that the image of is isomorphic to the quotient of by t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Column Space In linear algebra, the column space (also called the range or image) of a matrix ''A'' is the span (set of all possible linear combinations) of its column vectors. The column space of a matrix is the image or range of the corresponding matrix transformation. Let \mathbb be a field. The column space of an matrix with components from \mathbb is a linear subspace of the ''m''-space \mathbb^m. The dimension of the column space is called the rank of the matrix and is at most .Linear algebra, as discussed in this article, is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. Almost all of the material in this article can be found in Lay 2005, Meyer 2001, and Strang 2005. A definition for matrices over a ring \mathbb is also possible. The row space is defined similarly. The row space and the column space of a matrix are sometimes denoted as and respectively. This article considers matrices of real numbers. The row and column spaces are subspac ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Row Space Row or ROW may refer to: Exercise *Rowing, or a form of aquatic movement using oars *Row (weight-lifting), a form of weight-lifting exercise Math *Row vector, a 1 × ''n'' matrix in linear algebra. *Row (database), a single, implicitly structured data item in a table *Tone row, an arrangement of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale Other *Reality of Wrestling, an American professional wrestling promotion founded in 2005 * ''Row'' (album), an album by Gerard *Right-of-way (transportation), ROW, also often R/O/W. *The Row (fashion label) Places * Rów, Pomeranian Voivodeship, north Poland *Rów, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, north Poland *Rów, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, northwest Poland *Roswell International Air Center's IATA code * Row, a former spelling of Rhu, Dunbartonshire, Scotland *The Row (Lyme, New York), a set of historic homes *The Row, Virginia, an unincorporated community *Rest of the world or RoW See also *Row house *Controversy, sometimes called "row" in B ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Closure Operator In mathematics, a closure operator on a set ''S'' is a function \operatorname: \mathcal(S)\rightarrow \mathcal(S) from the power set of ''S'' to itself that satisfies the following conditions for all sets X,Y\subseteq S : Closure operators are determined by their closed sets, i.e., by the sets of the form cl(''X''), since the closure cl(''X'') of a set ''X'' is the smallest closed set containing ''X''. Such families of "closed sets" are sometimes called closure systems or "Moore families", in honor of E. H. Moore who studied closure operators in his 1910 ''Introduction to a form of general analysis'', whereas the concept of the closure of a subset originated in the work of Frigyes Riesz in connection with topological spaces. Though not formalized at the time, the idea of closure originated in the late 19th century with notable contributions by Ernst Schröder, Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor. Closure operators are also called "hull operators", which prevents confusion with the "c ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Galois Connection In mathematics, especially in order theory, a Galois connection is a particular correspondence (typically) between two partially ordered sets (posets). Galois connections find applications in various mathematical theories. They generalize the fundamental theorem of Galois theory about the correspondence between subgroups and subfields, discovered by the French mathematician Évariste Galois. A Galois connection can also be defined on preordered sets or classes; this article presents the common case of posets. The literature contains two closely related notions of "Galois connection". In this article, we will refer to them as (monotone) Galois connections and antitone Galois connections. A Galois connection is rather weak compared to an order isomorphism between the involved posets, but every Galois connection gives rise to an isomorphism of certain sub-posets, as will be explained below. The term Galois correspondence is sometimes used to mean a bijective ''Galois connection''; ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Annihilator (ring Theory) In mathematics, the annihilator of a subset of a module over a ring is the ideal formed by the elements of the ring that give always zero when multiplied by an element of . Over an integral domain, a module that has a nonzero annihilator is a torsion module, and a finitely generated torsion module has a nonzero annihilator. The above definition applies also in the case noncommutative rings, where the left annihilator of a left module is a left ideal, and the right-annihilator, of a right module is a right ideal. Definitions Let ''R'' be a ring, and let ''M'' be a left ''R''-module. Choose a non-empty subset ''S'' of ''M''. The annihilator of ''S'', denoted Ann''R''(''S''), is the set of all elements ''r'' in ''R'' such that, for all ''s'' in ''S'', . In set notation, :\mathrm_R(S)=\ It is the set of all elements of ''R'' that "annihilate" ''S'' (the elements for which ''S'' is a torsion set). Subsets of right modules may be used as well, after the modification of "" in ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Direct Sum The direct sum is an operation between structures in abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics. It is defined differently, but analogously, for different kinds of structures. To see how the direct sum is used in abstract algebra, consider a more elementary kind of structure, the abelian group. The direct sum of two abelian groups A and B is another abelian group A\oplus B consisting of the ordered pairs (a,b) where a \in A and b \in B. To add ordered pairs, we define the sum (a, b) + (c, d) to be (a + c, b + d); in other words addition is defined coordinate-wise. For example, the direct sum \Reals \oplus \Reals , where \Reals is real coordinate space, is the Cartesian plane, \R ^2 . A similar process can be used to form the direct sum of two vector spaces or two modules. We can also form direct sums with any finite number of summands, for example A \oplus B \oplus C, provided A, B, and C are the same kinds of algebraic structures (e.g., all abelian groups, or all vector spa ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Closure (topology) In topology, the closure of a subset of points in a topological space consists of all points in together with all limit points of . The closure of may equivalently be defined as the union of and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing . Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in or "near" . A point which is in the closure of is a point of closure of . The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior. Definitions Point of closure For S as a subset of a Euclidean space, x is a point of closure of S if every open ball centered at x contains a point of S (this point can be x itself). This definition generalizes to any subset S of a metric space X. Fully expressed, for X as a metric space with metric d, x is a point of closure of S if for every r > 0 there exists some s \in S such that the distance d(x, s) < r ($x = s$ is allowed). Another way to express this is to ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Hilbert Space In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow generalizing the methods of linear algebra and calculus from (finite-dimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinite-dimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that defines a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term ''Hilbert space'' for the abstract concept that under ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Complemented Subspace In the branch of mathematics called functional analysis, a complemented subspace of a topological vector space X, is a vector subspace M for which there exists some other vector subspace N of X, called its (topological) complement in X, such that X is the direct sum M \oplus N in the category of topological vector spaces. Formally, topological direct sums strengthen the algebraic direct sum by requiring certain maps be continuous; the result preserves many nice properties from the operation of direct sum in finite-dimensional vector spaces. Every finite-dimensional subspace of a Banach space is complemented, but other subspaces may not. In general, classifying all complemented subspaces is a difficult problem, which has been solved only for some well-known Banach spaces. The concept of a complemented subspace is analogous to, but distinct from, that of a set complement. The set-theoretic complement of a vector subspace is never a complementary subspace. Prelimi ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]