Open Ball
In mathematics, a ball is the solid figure bounded by a ''sphere''; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defined not only in threedimensional Euclidean space but also for lower and higher dimensions, and for metric spaces in general. A ''ball'' in dimensions is called a hyperball or ball and is bounded by a ''hypersphere'' or ()sphere. Thus, for example, a ball in the Euclidean plane is the same thing as a disk, the area bounded by a circle. In Euclidean 3space, a ball is taken to be the volume bounded by a 2dimensional sphere. In a onedimensional space, a ball is a line segment. In other contexts, such as in Euclidean geometry and informal use, ''sphere'' is sometimes used to mean ''ball''. In the field of topology the closed ndimensional ball is often denoted as B^n or D^n while the open ndimensional ball is \operatorname B^n or \oper ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Blue Ball
Blue is one of the three primary colours in the RYB colour model (traditional colour theory), as well as in the RGB (additive) colour model. It lies between violet and cyan on the spectrum of visible light. The eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between approximately 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; azure contains some green, while ultramarine contains some violet. The clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called Tyndall effect explains blue eyes. Distant objects appear more blue because of another optical effect called aerial perspective. Blue has been an important colour in art and decoration since ancient times. The semiprecious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and later, in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eigh ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object that are preserved under Continuous function, continuous Deformation theory, deformations, such as Stretch factor, stretching, Twist (mathematics), twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set (mathematics), set endowed with a structure, called a ''Topology (structure), topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity (mathematics), continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopy, homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Base (topology)
In mathematics, a base (or basis) for the topology of a topological space is a family \mathcal of open subsets of such that every open set of the topology is equal to the union of some subfamily of \mathcal. For example, the set of all open intervals in the real number line \R is a basis for the Euclidean topology on \R because every open interval is an open set, and also every open subset of \R can be written as a union of some family of open intervals. Bases are ubiquitous throughout topology. The sets in a base for a topology, which are called , are often easier to describe and use than arbitrary open sets. Many important topological definitions such as continuity and convergence can be checked using only basic open sets instead of arbitrary open sets. Some topologies have a base of open sets with specific useful properties that may make checking such topological definitions easier. Not all families of subsets of a set X form a base for a topology on X. Under some cond ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Totally Bounded
In topology and related branches of mathematics, totalboundedness is a generalization of compactness for circumstances in which a set is not necessarily closed. A totally bounded set can be covered by finitely many subsets of every fixed “size” (where the meaning of “size” depends on the structure of the ambient space). The term precompact (or precompact) is sometimes used with the same meaning, but precompact is also used to mean relatively compact. These definitions coincide for subsets of a complete metric space, but not in general. In metric spaces A metric space (M,d) is ''totally bounded'' if and only if for every real number \varepsilon > 0, there exists a finite collection of open balls in ''M'' of radius \varepsilon whose union contains . Equivalently, the metric space ''M'' is totally bounded if and only if for every \varepsilon >0, there exists a finite cover such that the radius of each element of the cover is at most \varepsilon. This is equiva ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bounded Set
:''"Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded if it is, in a certain sense, of finite measure. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word 'bounded' makes no sense in a general topological space without a corresponding metric Metric or metrical may refer to: * Metric system, an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement * An adjective indicating relation to measurement in general, or a noun describing a specific type of measurement Mathematics In mathem .... A bounded set is not necessarily a closed set and vise versa. For example, a subset ''S'' of a 2dimensional real space R''2'' constrained by two parabolic curves ''x''2 + 1 and ''x''2  1 defined in a Cartesian coordinate system is a closed but is not b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit Ball
Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete piece of action (or beat) in a theatrical presentation Music * ''Unit'' (album), 1997 album by the Australian band Regurgitator * The Units, a synthpunk band Television * ''The Unit'', an American television series * '' The Unit: Idol Rebooting Project'', South Korean reality TV survival show Business * Stock keeping unit, a discrete inventory management construct * Strategic business unit, a profit center which focuses on product offering and market segment * Unit of account, a monetary unit of measurement * Unit coin, a small coin or medallion (usually military), bearing an organization's insignia or emblem * Work unit, the name given to a place of employment in the People's Republic of China Science and technology Science and medicine * Unit, a vessel or section of a chemical plant * Blood unit, a measuremen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metric (mathematics)
In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other wellknown examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Double Factorial
In mathematics, the double factorial or semifactorial of a number , denoted by , is the product of all the integers from 1 up to that have the same parity (odd or even) as . That is, :n!! = \prod_^ (n2k) = n (n2) (n4) \cdots. For even , the double factorial is :n!! = \prod_^\frac (2k) = n(n2)(n4)\cdots 4\cdot 2 \,, and for odd it is :n!! = \prod_^\frac (2k1) = n(n2)(n4)\cdots 3\cdot 1 \,. For example, . The zero double factorial as an empty product. The sequence of double factorials for even = starts as : 1, 2, 8, 48, 384, 3840, 46080, 645120,... The sequence of double factorials for odd = starts as : 1, 3, 15, 105, 945, 10395, 135135,... The term odd factorial is sometimes used for the double factorial of an odd number. History and usage In a 1902 paper, the physicist Arthur Schuster wrote: states that the double factorial was originally introduced in order to simplify the expression of certain trigonometric integrals that arise in the derivation of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Particular Values Of The Gamma Function
The gamma function is an important special function in mathematics. Its particular values can be expressed in closed form for integer and halfinteger arguments, but no simple expressions are known for the values at rational points in general. Other fractional arguments can be approximated through efficient infinite products, infinite series, and recurrence relations. Integers and halfintegers For positive integer arguments, the gamma function coincides with the factorial. That is, :\Gamma(n) = (n1)!, and hence :\begin \Gamma(1) &= 1, \\ \Gamma(2) &= 1, \\ \Gamma(3) &= 2, \\ \Gamma(4) &= 6, \\ \Gamma(5) &= 24, \end and so on. For nonpositive integers, the gamma function is not defined. For positive halfintegers, the function values are given exactly by :\Gamma \left (\tfrac \right) = \sqrt \pi \frac\,, or equivalently, for nonnegative integer values of : :\begin \Gamma\left(\tfrac12+n\right) &= \frac\, \sqrt = \frac \sqrt \\ \Gamma\left(\tfrac12n\right) &= \frac\, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Factorial
In mathematics, the factorial of a nonnegative denoted is the product of all positive integers less than or equal The factorial also equals the product of n with the next smaller factorial: \begin n! &= n \times (n1) \times (n2) \times (n3) \times \cdots \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 \\ &= n\times(n1)!\\ \end For example, 5! = 5\times 4! = 5 \times 4 \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 = 120. The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product. Factorials have been discovered in several ancient cultures, notably in Indian mathematics in the canonical works of Jain literature, and by Jewish mystics in the Talmudic book '' Sefer Yetzirah''. The factorial operation is encountered in many areas of mathematics, notably in combinatorics, where its most basic use counts the possible distinct sequences – the permutations – of n distinct objects: there In mathematical analysis, factorials are used in power series for the exponential function an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gamma Function
In mathematics, the gamma function (represented by , the capital letter gamma from the Greek alphabet) is one commonly used extension of the factorial function to complex numbers. The gamma function is defined for all complex numbers except the nonpositive integers. For every positive integer , \Gamma(n) = (n1)!\,. Derived by Daniel Bernoulli, for complex numbers with a positive real part, the gamma function is defined via a convergent improper integral: \Gamma(z) = \int_0^\infty t^ e^\,dt, \ \qquad \Re(z) > 0\,. The gamma function then is defined as the analytic continuation of this integral function to a meromorphic function that is holomorphic in the whole complex plane except zero and the negative integers, where the function has simple poles. The gamma function has no zeroes, so the reciprocal gamma function is an entire function. In fact, the gamma function corresponds to the Mellin transform of the negative exponential function: \Gamma(z) = \mathcal M \ (z ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler ( , ; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and infinitesimal calculus. He introduced much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy and music theory. Euler is held to be one of the greatest mathematicians in history and the greatest of the 18th century. A statement attributed to PierreSimon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all." Carl Friedrich Gauss remarked: "The study of Euler's works will remain the best school for the different fields of mathematics, and nothing else can replace it." Euler is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 