Onesided Limit
In calculus, a onesided limit refers to either one of the two limits of a function f(x) of a real variable x as x approaches a specified point either from the left or from the right. The limit as x decreases in value approaching a (x approaches a "from the right" or "from above") can be denoted: \lim_f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\,f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\,f(x) \quad \text \quad f(x+) The limit as x increases in value approaching a (x approaches a "from the left" or "from below") can be denoted: \lim_f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\, f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\,f(x) \quad \text \quad f(x) If the limit of f(x) as x approaches a exists then the limits from the left and from the right both exist and are equal. In some cases in which the limit \lim_ f(x) does not exist, the two onesided limits nonetheless exist. Consequently, the limit as x approaches a is sometimes called a "twosided limit". It is possible for exactly one of the two onesided limits to exist (while the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Halfopen Interval Topology
In mathematics, the lower limit topology or right halfopen interval topology is a topology defined on the set \mathbb of real numbers; it is different from the standard topology on \mathbb (generated by the open intervals) and has a number of interesting properties. It is the topology generated by the basis of all halfopen intervals ''a'',''b''),_where_''a''_and_''b''_are_real_numbers. The_resulting_topological_space.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''a'',''b''), where ''a'' and ''b'' are real numbers. The resulting topological space">/nowiki>''a'',''b''), where ''a'' and ''b'' are real numbers. The resulting topological space is called the Sorgenfrey line after Robert Sorgenfrey or the arrow and is sometimes written \mathbb_l. Like the Cantor set and the long line (topology), long line, the Sorgenfrey line often serves as a useful counterexample to many otherwise plausiblesounding conjectures in general topology. The product of \mathbb_l with itself is also a useful counterexample, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Analysis
In mathematics, the branch of real analysis studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real functions. Some particular properties of realvalued sequences and functions that real analysis studies include convergence, limits, continuity, smoothness, differentiability and integrability. Real analysis is distinguished from complex analysis, which deals with the study of complex numbers and their functions. Scope Construction of the real numbers The theorems of real analysis rely on the properties of the real number system, which must be established. The real number system consists of an uncountable set (\mathbb), together with two binary operations denoted and , and an order denoted . The operations make the real numbers a field, and, along with the order, an ordered field. The real number system is the unique ''complete ordered field'', in the sense that any other complete ordered field is isomorphic to it. Intuitively, completeness means ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit Superior And Limit Inferior
In mathematics, the limit inferior and limit superior of a sequence can be thought of as limiting (that is, eventual and extreme) bounds on the sequence. They can be thought of in a similar fashion for a function (see limit of a function). For a set, they are the infimum and supremum of the set's limit points, respectively. In general, when there are multiple objects around which a sequence, function, or set accumulates, the inferior and superior limits extract the smallest and largest of them; the type of object and the measure of size is contextdependent, but the notion of extreme limits is invariant. Limit inferior is also called infimum limit, limit infimum, liminf, inferior limit, lower limit, or inner limit; limit superior is also known as supremum limit, limit supremum, limsup, superior limit, upper limit, or outer limit. The limit inferior of a sequence x_n is denoted by \liminf_x_n\quad\text\quad \varliminf_x_n. The limit superior of a sequence x_n is denoted by \lims ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Semidifferentiability
In calculus, a branch of mathematics, the notions of onesided differentiability and semidifferentiability of a realvalued function ''f'' of a real variable are weaker than differentiability. Specifically, the function ''f'' is said to be right differentiable at a point ''a'' if, roughly speaking, a derivative can be defined as the function's argument ''x'' moves to ''a'' from the right, and left differentiable at ''a'' if the derivative can be defined as ''x'' moves to ''a'' from the left. Onedimensional case In mathematics, a left derivative and a right derivative are derivatives (rates of change of a function) defined for movement in one direction only (left or right; that is, to lower or higher values) by the argument of a function. Definitions Let ''f'' denote a realvalued function defined on a subset ''I'' of the real numbers. If is a limit point of and the onesided limit :\partial_+f(a):=\lim_\frac exists as a real number, then ''f'' is called right differe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projectively Extended Real Line
In real analysis, the projectively extended real line (also called the onepoint compactification of the real line), is the extension of the set of the real numbers, \mathbb, by a point denoted . It is thus the set \mathbb\cup\ with the standard arithmetic operations extended where possible, and is sometimes denoted by \widehat. The added point is called the point at infinity, because it is considered as a neighbour of both ends of the real line. More precisely, the point at infinity is the limit of every sequence of real numbers whose absolute values are increasing and unbounded. The projectively extended real line may be identified with a real projective line in which three points have been assigned the specific values , and . The projectively extended real number line is distinct from the affinely extended real number line, in which and are distinct. Dividing by zero Unlike most mathematical models of the intuitive concept of 'number', this structure allows division by ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abel's Theorem
In mathematics, Abel's theorem for power series relates a limit of a power series to the sum of its coefficients. It is named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. Theorem Let the Taylor series G (x) = \sum_^\infty a_k x^k be a power series with real coefficients a_k with radius of convergence 1. Suppose that the series \sum_^\infty a_k converges. Then G(x) is continuous from the left at x = 1, that is, \lim_ G(x) = \sum_^\infty a_k. The same theorem holds for complex power series G(z) = \sum_^\infty a_k z^k, provided that z \to 1 entirely within a single ''Stolz sector'', that is, a region of the open unit disk where , 1z, \leq M(1, z, ) for some fixed finite M > 1. Without this restriction, the limit may fail to exist: for example, the power series \sum_ \frac n converges to 0 at z = 1, but is unbounded near any point of the form e^, so the value at z = 1 is not the limit as z tends to 1 in the whole open disk. Note that G(z) is continuous on the real clo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Radius Of Convergence
In mathematics, the radius of convergence of a power series is the radius of the largest disk at the center of the series in which the series converges. It is either a nonnegative real number or \infty. When it is positive, the power series converges absolutely and uniformly on compact sets inside the open disk of radius equal to the radius of convergence, and it is the Taylor series of the analytic function to which it converges. In case of multiple singularities of a function (singularities are those values of the argument for which the function is not defined), the radius of convergence is the shortest or minimum of all the respective distances (which are all nonnegative numbers) calculated from the center of the disk of convergence to the respective singularities of the function. Definition For a power series ''f'' defined as: :f(z) = \sum_^\infty c_n (za)^n, where *''a'' is a complex constant, the center of the disk of convergence, *''c''''n'' is the ''n''th comp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Series
In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form \sum_^\infty a_n \left(x  c\right)^n = a_0 + a_1 (x  c) + a_2 (x  c)^2 + \dots where ''an'' represents the coefficient of the ''n''th term and ''c'' is a constant. Power series are useful in mathematical analysis, where they arise as Taylor series of infinitely differentiable functions. In fact, Borel's theorem implies that every power series is the Taylor series of some smooth function. In many situations, ''c'' (the ''center'' of the series) is equal to zero, for instance when considering a Maclaurin series. In such cases, the power series takes the simpler form \sum_^\infty a_n x^n = a_0 + a_1 x + a_2 x^2 + \dots. Beyond their role in mathematical analysis, power series also occur in combinatorics as generating functions (a kind of formal power series) and in electronic engineering (under the name of the Ztransform). The familiar decimal notation for real numbers can also be viewed as an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

1 Div (1 + 2 ** (1 Div X))
1 (one, unit, unity) is a number representing a single or the only entity. 1 is also a numerical digit and represents a single unit of counting or measurement. For example, a line segment of ''unit length'' is a line segment of length 1. In conventions of sign where zero is considered neither positive nor negative, 1 is the first and smallest positive integer. It is also sometimes considered the first of the infinite sequence of natural numbers, followed by 2, although by other definitions 1 is the second natural number, following 0. The fundamental mathematical property of 1 is to be a multiplicative identity, meaning that any number multiplied by 1 equals the same number. Most if not all properties of 1 can be deduced from this. In advanced mathematics, a multiplicative identity is often denoted 1, even if it is not a number. 1 is by convention not considered a prime number; this was not universally accepted until the mid20th century. Additionally, 1 is the s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous Rate of change (mathematics), rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence (mathematics), convergence of infinite sequences and Series (mathematics), infinite series to a welldefined limit (mathematics), limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including (ε, δ)definition of limit, codify ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transitive Relation
In mathematics, a relation on a set is transitive if, for all elements , , in , whenever relates to and to , then also relates to . Each partial order as well as each equivalence relation needs to be transitive. Definition A homogeneous relation on the set is a ''transitive relation'' if, :for all , if and , then . Or in terms of firstorder logic: :\forall a,b,c \in X: (aRb \wedge bRc) \Rightarrow aRc, where is the infix notation for . Examples As a nonmathematical example, the relation "is an ancestor of" is transitive. For example, if Amy is an ancestor of Becky, and Becky is an ancestor of Carrie, then Amy, too, is an ancestor of Carrie. On the other hand, "is the birth parent of" is not a transitive relation, because if Alice is the birth parent of Brenda, and Brenda is the birth parent of Claire, then this does not imply that Alice is the birth parent of Claire. What is more, it is antitransitive: Alice can ''never'' be the birth parent of Claire. "Is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 