Number Field
In mathematics, an algebraic number field (or simply number field) is an extension field K of the field of rational numbers such that the field extension K / \mathbb has finite degree (and hence is an algebraic field extension). Thus K is a field that contains \mathbb and has finite dimension when considered as a vector space over The study of algebraic number fields, and, more generally, of algebraic extensions of the field of rational numbers, is the central topic of algebraic number theory. This study reveals hidden structures behind usual rational numbers, by using algebraic methods. Definition Prerequisites The notion of algebraic number field relies on the concept of a field. A field consists of a set of elements together with two operations, namely addition, and multiplication, and some distributivity assumptions. A prominent example of a field is the field of rational numbers, commonly denoted together with its usual operations of addition and multiplication. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gaussian Rational
In mathematics, a Gaussian rational number is a complex number of the form ''p'' + ''qi'', where ''p'' and ''q'' are both rational numbers. The set of all Gaussian rationals forms the Gaussian rational field, denoted Q(''i''), obtained by adjoining the imaginary number ''i'' to the field of rationals. Properties of the field The field of Gaussian rationals provides an example of an algebraic number field, which is both a quadratic field and a cyclotomic field (since ''i'' is a 4th root of unity). Like all quadratic fields it is a Galois extension of Q with Galois group cyclic of order two, in this case generated by complex conjugation, and is thus an abelian extension of Q, with conductor 4. As with cyclotomic fields more generally, the field of Gaussian rationals is neither ordered nor complete (as a metric space). The Gaussian integers Z 'i''form the ring of integers of Q(''i''). The set of all Gaussian rationals is countably infinite. Ford spheres The concept of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Divisor
In abstract algebra, an element of a ring is called a left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that , or equivalently if the map from to that sends to is not injective. Similarly, an element of a ring is called a right zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that . This is a partial case of divisibility in rings. An element that is a left or a right zero divisor is simply called a zero divisor. An element that is both a left and a right zero divisor is called a twosided zero divisor (the nonzero such that may be different from the nonzero such that ). If the ring is commutative, then the left and right zero divisors are the same. An element of a ring that is not a left zero divisor is called left regular or left cancellable. Similarly, an element of a ring that is not a right zero divisor is called right regular or right cancellable. An element of a ring that is left and right cancellable, and is hence not a zero divisor, is called regu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ordered Pair
In mathematics, an ordered pair (''a'', ''b'') is a pair of objects. The order in which the objects appear in the pair is significant: the ordered pair (''a'', ''b'') is different from the ordered pair (''b'', ''a'') unless ''a'' = ''b''. (In contrast, the unordered pair equals the unordered pair .) Ordered pairs are also called 2tuples, or sequences (sometimes, lists in a computer science context) of length 2. Ordered pairs of scalars are sometimes called 2dimensional vectors. (Technically, this is an abuse of terminology since an ordered pair need not be an element of a vector space.) The entries of an ordered pair can be other ordered pairs, enabling the recursive definition of ordered ''n''tuples (ordered lists of ''n'' objects). For example, the ordered triple (''a'',''b'',''c'') can be defined as (''a'', (''b'',''c'')), i.e., as one pair nested in another. In the ordered pair (''a'', ''b''), the object ''a'' is called the ''first entry'', and the object ''b'' the '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countable
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite comm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uncountable
In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable. The uncountability of a set is closely related to its cardinal number: a set is uncountable if its cardinal number is larger than that of the set of all natural numbers. Characterizations There are many equivalent characterizations of uncountability. A set ''X'' is uncountable if and only if any of the following conditions hold: * There is no injective function (hence no bijection) from ''X'' to the set of natural numbers. * ''X'' is nonempty and for every ωsequence of elements of ''X'', there exists at least one element of X not included in it. That is, ''X'' is nonempty and there is no surjective function from the natural numbers to ''X''. * The cardinality of ''X'' is neither finite nor equal to \aleph_0 (alephnull, the cardinality of the natural numbers). * The set ''X'' has cardinality strictly greater than \aleph_0. The first three of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real number ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler Totient Function
In number theory, Euler's totient function counts the positive integers up to a given integer that are relatively prime to . It is written using the Greek letter phi as \varphi(n) or \phi(n), and may also be called Euler's phi function. In other words, it is the number of integers in the range for which the greatest common divisor is equal to 1. The integers of this form are sometimes referred to as totatives of . For example, the totatives of are the six numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8. They are all relatively prime to 9, but the other three numbers in this range, 3, 6, and 9 are not, since and . Therefore, . As another example, since for the only integer in the range from 1 to is 1 itself, and . Euler's totient function is a multiplicative function, meaning that if two numbers and are relatively prime, then . This function gives the order of the multiplicative group of integers modulo (the group of units of the ring \Z/n\Z). It is also used for defining the RSA e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cyclotomic Field
In number theory, a cyclotomic field is a number field obtained by adjoining a complex root of unity to , the field of rational numbers. Cyclotomic fields played a crucial role in the development of modern algebra and number theory because of their relation with Fermat's Last Theorem. It was in the process of his deep investigations of the arithmetic of these fields (for prime ) – and more precisely, because of the failure of unique factorization in their rings of integers – that Ernst Kummer first introduced the concept of an ideal number and proved his celebrated congruences. Definition For , let ; this is a primitive th root of unity. Then the th cyclotomic field is the extension of generated by . Properties * The th cyclotomic polynomial : \Phi_n(x) = \!\!\!\prod_\stackrel\!\!\! \left(xe^\right) = \!\!\!\prod_\stackrel\!\!\! (x^k) :is irreducible, so it is the minimal polynomial of over . * The conjugates of in are therefore the other primiti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Field
In algebraic number theory, a quadratic field is an algebraic number field of degree two over \mathbf, the rational numbers. Every such quadratic field is some \mathbf(\sqrt) where d is a (uniquely defined) squarefree integer different from 0 and 1. If d>0, the corresponding quadratic field is called a real quadratic field, and, if d<0, it is called an imaginary quadratic field or a complex quadratic field, corresponding to whether or not it is a subfield of the field of the s. Quadratic fields have been studied in great depth, initially as part of the theory of s. There remain some unsolved prob ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Squarefree
{{no footnotes, date=December 2015 In mathematics, a squarefree element is an element ''r'' of a unique factorization domain ''R'' that is not divisible by a nontrivial square. This means that every ''s'' such that s^2\mid r is a unit of ''R''. Alternate characterizations Squarefree elements may be also characterized using their prime decomposition. The unique factorization property means that a nonzero nonunit ''r'' can be represented as a product of prime elements :r=p_1p_2\cdots p_n Then ''r'' is squarefree if and only if the primes ''pi'' are pairwise nonassociated (i.e. that it doesn't have two of the same prime as factors, which would make it divisible by a square number). Examples Common examples of squarefree elements include squarefree integers and squarefree polynomials. See also *Prime number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not pri ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 