Nth Root
In mathematics, a radicand, also known as an nth root, of a number ''x'' is a number ''r'' which, when raised to the power ''n'', yields ''x'': :r^n = x, where ''n'' is a positive integer, sometimes called the ''degree'' of the root. A root of degree 2 is called a ''square root'' and a root of degree 3, a ''cube root''. Roots of higher degree are referred by using ordinal numbers, as in ''fourth root'', ''twentieth root'', etc. The computation of an th root is a root extraction. For example, 3 is a square root of 9, since 3 = 9, and −3 is also a square root of 9, since (−3) = 9. Any nonzero number considered as a complex number has different complex th roots, including the real ones (at most two). The th root of 0 is zero for all positive integers , since . In particular, if is even and is a positive real number, one of its th roots is real and positive, one is negative, and the others (when ) are nonreal complex numbers; if is even and is a negative real numbe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real number ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Exponent
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as , involving two numbers, the '' base'' and the ''exponent'' or ''power'' , and pronounced as " (raised) to the (power of) ". When is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, is the product of multiplying bases: b^n = \underbrace_. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, is called "''b'' raised to the ''n''th power", "''b'' (raised) to the power of ''n''", "the ''n''th power of ''b''", "''b'' to the ''n''th power", or most briefly as "''b'' to the ''n''th". Starting from the basic fact stated above that, for any positive integer n, b^n is n occurrences of b all multiplied by each other, several other properties of exponentiation directly follow. In particular: \begin b^ & = \underbrace_ \\ ex& = \underbrace_ \times \underbrace_ \\ ex& = b^n \times b^m \end In other words, when multiplying a base raised to one exp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Number
An algebraic number is a number that is a root of a nonzero polynomial in one variable with integer (or, equivalently, rational) coefficients. For example, the golden ratio, (1 + \sqrt)/2, is an algebraic number, because it is a root of the polynomial . That is, it is a value for x for which the polynomial evaluates to zero. As another example, the complex number 1 + i is algebraic because it is a root of . All integers and rational numbers are algebraic, as are all roots of integers. Real and complex numbers that are not algebraic, such as and , are called transcendental numbers. The set of algebraic numbers is countably infinite and has measure zero in the Lebesgue measure as a subset of the uncountable complex numbers. In that sense, almost all complex numbers are transcendental. Examples * All rational numbers are algebraic. Any rational number, expressed as the quotient of an integer and a (nonzero) natural number , satisfies the above definition, because is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Irrational Number
In mathematics, the irrational numbers (from in prefix assimilated to ir (negative prefix, privative) + rational) are all the real numbers that are not rational numbers. That is, irrational numbers cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers. When the ratio of lengths of two line segments is an irrational number, the line segments are also described as being '' incommensurable'', meaning that they share no "measure" in common, that is, there is no length ("the measure"), no matter how short, that could be used to express the lengths of both of the two given segments as integer multiples of itself. Among irrational numbers are the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, Euler's number ''e'', the golden ratio ''φ'', and the square root of two. In fact, all square roots of natural numbers, other than of perfect squares, are irrational. Like all real numbers, irrational numbers can be expressed in positional notation, notably as a decimal number. In the cas ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fourier Transform
A Fourier transform (FT) is a mathematical transform that decomposes functions into frequency components, which are represented by the output of the transform as a function of frequency. Most commonly functions of time or space are transformed, which will output a function depending on temporal frequency or spatial frequency respectively. That process is also called ''analysis''. An example application would be decomposing the waveform of a musical chord into terms of the intensity of its constituent pitches. The term ''Fourier transform'' refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a function of space or time. The Fourier transform of a function is a complexvalued function representing the complex sinusoids that comprise the original function. For each frequency, the magnitude (absolute value) of the complex value represents the amplitude of a constituent complex sinusoid with that ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Theory Of Equations
In algebra, the theory of equations is the study of algebraic equations (also called "polynomial equations"), which are equations defined by a polynomial. The main problem of the theory of equations was to know when an algebraic equation has an algebraic solution. This problem was completely solved in 1830 by Évariste Galois, by introducing what is now called Galois theory. Before Galois, there was no clear distinction between the "theory of equations" and "algebra". Since then algebra has been dramatically enlarged to include many new subareas, and the theory of algebraic equations receives much less attention. Thus, the term "theory of equations" is mainly used in the context of the history of mathematics, to avoid confusion between old and new meanings of "algebra". History Until the end of the 19th century, "theory of equations" was almost synonymous with "algebra". For a long time, the main problem was to find the solutions of a single nonlinear polynomial equation in a s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and arithmetic function, integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die Königin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die Königin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of Complex analysis, analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Roots Of Unity
In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when raised to some positive integer power . Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematics, and are especially important in number theory, the theory of group characters, and the discrete Fourier transform. Roots of unity can be defined in any field. If the characteristic of the field is zero, the roots are complex numbers that are also algebraic integers. For fields with a positive characteristic, the roots belong to a finite field, and, conversely, every nonzero element of a finite field is a root of unity. Any algebraically closed field contains exactly th roots of unity, except when is a multiple of the (positive) characteristic of the field. General definition An ''th root of unity'', where is a positive integer, is a number satisfying the equation :z^n = 1. Unless otherwise specified, the roots of unity may be taken to be complex numbers (incl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 