Normal Subgroup
In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or selfconjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup N of the group G is normal in G if and only if gng^ \in N for all g \in G and n \in N. The usual notation for this relation is N \triangleleft G. Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group. Furthermore, the normal subgroups of G are precisely the kernels of group homomorphisms with domain G, which means that they can be used to internally classify those homomorphisms. Évariste Galois was the first to realize the importance of the existence of normal subgroups. Definitions A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup of G if it is invariant under conjugation; that is, the conjugation of an element of N by an element of G is always in N. The usual notation for this re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the ''variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, algebra meant ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Element
In mathematics, an identity element, or neutral element, of a binary operation operating on a set is an element of the set that leaves unchanged every element of the set when the operation is applied. This concept is used in algebraic structures such as groups and rings. The term ''identity element'' is often shortened to ''identity'' (as in the case of additive identity and multiplicative identity) when there is no possibility of confusion, but the identity implicitly depends on the binary operation it is associated with. Definitions Let be a set equipped with a binary operation ∗. Then an element of is called a if for all in , and a if for all in . If is both a left identity and a right identity, then it is called a , or simply an . An identity with respect to addition is called an (often denoted as 0) and an identity with respect to multiplication is called a (often denoted as 1). These need not be ordinary additi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transitive Relation
In mathematics, a relation on a set is transitive if, for all elements , , in , whenever relates to and to , then also relates to . Each partial order as well as each equivalence relation needs to be transitive. Definition A homogeneous relation on the set is a ''transitive relation'' if, :for all , if and , then . Or in terms of firstorder logic: :\forall a,b,c \in X: (aRb \wedge bRc) \Rightarrow aRc, where is the infix notation for . Examples As a nonmathematical example, the relation "is an ancestor of" is transitive. For example, if Amy is an ancestor of Becky, and Becky is an ancestor of Carrie, then Amy, too, is an ancestor of Carrie. On the other hand, "is the birth parent of" is not a transitive relation, because if Alice is the birth parent of Brenda, and Brenda is the birth parent of Claire, then this does not imply that Alice is the birth parent of Claire. What is more, it is antitransitive: Alice can ''never'' be the birth parent of Claire. "Is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rotation
Rotation, or spin, is the circular movement of an object around a '' central axis''. A twodimensional rotating object has only one possible central axis and can rotate in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. A threedimensional object has an infinite number of possible central axes and rotational directions. If the rotation axis passes internally through the body's own center of mass, then the body is said to be ''autorotating'' or '' spinning'', and the surface intersection of the axis can be called a ''pole''. A rotation around a completely external axis, e.g. the planet Earth around the Sun, is called ''revolving'' or ''orbiting'', typically when it is produced by gravity, and the ends of the rotation axis can be called the ''orbital poles''. Mathematics Mathematically, a rotation is a rigid body movement which, unlike a translation, keeps a point fixed. This definition applies to rotations within both two and three dimensions (in a plane and in space, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Group
In mathematics, a Euclidean group is the group of (Euclidean) isometries of a Euclidean space \mathbb^n; that is, the transformations of that space that preserve the Euclidean distance between any two points (also called Euclidean transformations). The group depends only on the dimension ''n'' of the space, and is commonly denoted E(''n'') or ISO(''n''). The Euclidean group E(''n'') comprises all translations, rotations, and reflections of \mathbb^n; and arbitrary finite combinations of them. The Euclidean group can be seen as the symmetry group of the space itself, and contains the group of symmetries of any figure (subset) of that space. A Euclidean isometry can be ''direct'' or ''indirect'', depending on whether it preserves the handedness of figures. The direct Euclidean isometries form a subgroup, the special Euclidean group, often denoted SE(''n''), whose elements are called rigid motions or Euclidean motions. They comprise arbitrary combinations of translations and rot ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Translation Group
In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure, shape or space by the same distance in a given direction. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry. As a function If \mathbf is a fixed vector, known as the ''translation vector'', and \mathbf is the initial position of some object, then the translation function T_ will work as T_(\mathbf)=\mathbf+\mathbf. If T is a translation, then the image of a subset A under the function T is the translate of A by T . The translate of A by T_ is often written A+\mathbf . Horizontal and vertical translations In geometry, a vertical translation (also known as vertical shift) is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system. Often, vertical translations ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rubik's Cube Group
The Rubik's Cube group is a Group (mathematics), group (G, \cdot ) that represents the Mathematical structure, structure of the Rubik's Cube mechanical puzzle. Each element of the Set (mathematics), set G corresponds to a cube move, which is the effect of any sequence of rotations of the cube's faces. With this representation, not only can any cube move be represented, but also any position of the cube as well, by detailing the cube moves required to rotate the solved cube into that position. Indeed with the solved position as a starting point, there is a Bijection, onetoone correspondence between each of the legal positions of the Rubik's Cube and the elements of G. The group Binary operation, operation \cdot is the Function composition, composition of cube moves, corresponding to the result of performing one cube move after another. The Rubik's Cube group is constructed by labeling each of the 48 noncenter facets with the integers 1 to 48. Each configuration of the cube ca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Group
In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions. In particular, the finite symmetric group \mathrm_n defined over a finite set of n symbols consists of the permutations that can be performed on the n symbols. Since there are n! (n factorial) such permutation operations, the order (number of elements) of the symmetric group \mathrm_n is n!. Although symmetric groups can be defined on infinite sets, this article focuses on the finite symmetric groups: their applications, their elements, their conjugacy classes, a finite presentation, their subgroups, their automorphism groups, and their representation theory. For the remainder of this article, "symmetric group" will mean a symmetric group on a finite set. The symmetric group is important to diverse areas of mathematics such as Galois theory, invariant theory, the representatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hamiltonian Group
In group theory, a Dedekind group is a group ''G'' such that every subgroup of ''G'' is normal. All abelian groups are Dedekind groups. A nonabelian Dedekind group is called a Hamiltonian group. The most familiar (and smallest) example of a Hamiltonian group is the quaternion group of order 8, denoted by Q8. Dedekind and Baer have shown (in the finite and respectively infinite order case) that every Hamiltonian group is a direct product of the form , where ''B'' is an elementary abelian 2group, and ''D'' is a torsion abelian group with all elements of odd order. Dedekind groups are named after Richard Dedekind, who investigated them in , proving a form of the above structure theorem (for finite groups). He named the nonabelian ones after William Rowan Hamilton, the discoverer of quaternions. In 1898 George Miller delineated the structure of a Hamiltonian group in terms of its order and that of its subgroups. For instance, he shows "a Hamilton group of order 2''a'' has quater ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abelian Group
In mathematics, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written. That is, the group operation is commutative. With addition as an operation, the integers and the real numbers form abelian groups, and the concept of an abelian group may be viewed as a generalization of these examples. Abelian groups are named after early 19th century mathematician Niels Henrik Abel. The concept of an abelian group underlies many fundamental algebraic structures, such as fields, rings, vector spaces, and algebras. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their nonabelian counterparts, and finite abelian groups are very well understood and fully classified. Definition An abelian group is a set A, together with an operation \cdot that combines any two elements a and b of A to form another element of A, denoted a \cdot b. The symbo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Characteristic Subgroup
In mathematics, particularly in the area of abstract algebra known as group theory, a characteristic subgroup is a subgroup that is mapped to itself by every automorphism of the parent group. Because every conjugation map is an inner automorphism, every characteristic subgroup is normal; though the converse is not guaranteed. Examples of characteristic subgroups include the commutator subgroup and the center of a group. Definition A subgroup of a group is called a characteristic subgroup if for every automorphism of , one has ; then write . It would be equivalent to require the stronger condition = for every automorphism of , because implies the reverse inclusion . Basic properties Given , every automorphism of induces an automorphism of the quotient group , which yields a homomorphism . If has a unique subgroup of a given index, then is characteristic in . Related concepts Normal subgroup A subgroup of that is invariant under all inner automorphisms i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutator Subgroup
In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra, the commutator subgroup or derived subgroup of a group is the subgroup generated by all the commutators of the group. The commutator subgroup is important because it is the smallest normal subgroup such that the quotient group of the original group by this subgroup is abelian. In other words, G/N is abelian if and only if N contains the commutator subgroup of G. So in some sense it provides a measure of how far the group is from being abelian; the larger the commutator subgroup is, the "less abelian" the group is. Commutators For elements g and h of a group ''G'', the commutator of g and h is ,h= g^h^gh. The commutator ,h/math> is equal to the identity element ''e'' if and only if gh = hg , that is, if and only if g and h commute. In general, gh = hg ,h/math>. However, the notation is somewhat arbitrary and there is a nonequivalent variant definition for the commutator that has the inverses on the right hand side of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 