Neighborhood (graph Theory)
In graph theory, an adjacent vertex of a vertex in a graph is a vertex that is connected to by an edge. The neighbourhood of a vertex in a graph is the subgraph of induced by all vertices adjacent to , i.e., the graph composed of the vertices adjacent to and all edges connecting vertices adjacent to . The neighbourhood is often denoted or (when the graph is unambiguous) . The same neighbourhood notation may also be used to refer to sets of adjacent vertices rather than the corresponding induced subgraphs. The neighbourhood described above does not include itself, and is more specifically the open neighbourhood of ; it is also possible to define a neighbourhood in which itself is included, called the closed neighbourhood and denoted by . When stated without any qualification, a neighbourhood is assumed to be open. Neighbourhoods may be used to represent graphs in computer algorithms, via the adjacency list and adjacency matrix representations. Neighbourhoods are also ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Graph
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple undirected graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a unique edge. A complete digraph is a directed graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a pair of unique edges (one in each direction). Graph theory itself is typically dated as beginning with Leonhard Euler's 1736 work on the Seven Bridges of Königsberg. However, drawings of complete graphs, with their vertices placed on the points of a regular polygon, had already appeared in the 13th century, in the work of Ramon Llull. Such a drawing is sometimes referred to as a mystic rose. Properties The complete graph on vertices is denoted by . Some sources claim that the letter in this notation stands for the German word , but the German name for a complete graph, , does not contain the letter , and other sources state that the notation honors the contributions of Kazimierz Kuratowski to graph theory. has edges ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Triangulation (topology)
In mathematics, triangulation describes the replacement of topological spaces by piecewise linear spaces, i.e. the choice of a homeomorphism in a suitable simplicial complex. Spaces being homeomorphic to a simplicial complex are called triangulable. Triangulation has various uses in different branches of mathematics, for instance in algebraic topology, in complex analysis or in modeling. Motivation On the one hand, it is sometimes useful to forget about superfluous information of topological spaces: The replacement of the original spaces with simplicial complexes may help to recognize crucial properties and to gain a better understanding of the considered object. On the other hand, simplicial complexes are objects of combinatorial character and therefore one can assign them quantities rising from their combinatorial pattern, for instance, the Euler characteristic. Triangulation allows now to assign such quantities to topological spaces. Investigations concerning the exist ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Paley Graph
In mathematics, Paley graphs are dense undirected graphs constructed from the members of a suitable finite field by connecting pairs of elements that differ by a quadratic residue. The Paley graphs form an infinite family of conference graphs, which yield an infinite family of symmetric conference matrices. Paley graphs allow graphtheoretic tools to be applied to the number theory of quadratic residues, and have interesting properties that make them useful in graph theory more generally. Paley graphs are named after Raymond Paley. They are closely related to the Paley construction for constructing Hadamard matrices from quadratic residues . They were introduced as graphs independently by and . Sachs was interested in them for their selfcomplementarity properties, while Erdős and Rényi studied their symmetries. Paley digraphs are directed analogs of Paley graphs that yield antisymmetric conference matrices. They were introduced by (independently of Sachs, Erdős, and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Icosahedron
In geometry, an icosahedron ( or ) is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes and . The plural can be either "icosahedra" () or "icosahedrons". There are infinitely many non similar shapes of icosahedra, some of them being more symmetrical than others. The best known is the (convex, non stellated) regular icosahedron—one of the Platonic solids—whose faces are 20 equilateral triangles. Regular icosahedra There are two objects, one convex and one nonconvex, that can both be called regular icosahedra. Each has 30 edges and 20 equilateral triangle faces with five meeting at each of its twelve vertices. Both have icosahedral symmetry. The term "regular icosahedron" generally refers to the convex variety, while the nonconvex form is called a ''great icosahedron''. Convex regular icosahedron The convex regular icosahedron is usually referred to simply as the ''regular icosahedron'', one of the five regular Platonic solids, and is represented by its Schläfli symbol , con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Octahedron
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra, octahedrons) is a polyhedron with eight faces. The term is most commonly used to refer to the regular octahedron, a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles, four of which meet at each vertex. A regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube. It is a rectified tetrahedron. It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations. It is also a triangular antiprism in any of four orientations. An octahedron is the threedimensional case of the more general concept of a cross polytope. A regular octahedron is a 3ball in the Manhattan () metric. Regular octahedron Dimensions If the edge length of a regular octahedron is ''a'', the radius of a circumscribed sphere (one that touches the octahedron at all vertices) is :r_u = \frac a \approx 0.707 \cdot a and the radius of an inscribed sphere (tangent to each of the octahedron's faces) is :r_i = \frac a \approx 0.408\cdot a while the midradius, which t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Comparability Graph
In graph theory, a comparability graph is an undirected graph that connects pairs of elements that are comparable to each other in a partial order. Comparability graphs have also been called transitively orientable graphs, partially orderable graphs, containment graphs, and divisor graphs. An incomparability graph is an undirected graph that connects pairs of elements that are not comparable to each other in a partial order. Definitions and characterization For any strict partially ordered set , the comparability graph of is the graph of which the vertices are the elements of and the edges are those pairs of elements such that . That is, for a partially ordered set, take the directed acyclic graph, apply transitive closure, and remove orientation. Equivalently, a comparability graph is a graph that has a transitive orientation, an assignment of directions to the edges of the graph (i.e. an orientation of the graph) such that the adjacency relation of the resulting directe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Perfect Graph
In graph theory, a perfect graph is a graph in which the chromatic number of every induced subgraph equals the order of the largest clique of that subgraph (clique number). Equivalently stated in symbolic terms an arbitrary graph G=(V,E) is perfect if and only if for all S\subseteq V we have \chi(G =\omega(G . The perfect graphs include many important families of graphs and serve to unify results relating colorings and cliques in those families. For instance, in all perfect graphs, the graph coloring problem, maximum clique problem, and maximum independent set problem can all be solved in polynomial time. In addition, several important minmax theorems in combinatorics, such as Dilworth's theorem, can be expressed in terms of the perfection of certain associated graphs. A graph G is 1perfect if and only if \chi(G)=\omega(G). Then, G is perfect if and only if every induced subgraph of G is 1perfect. Properties * By the perfect graph theorem, a graph G is perfect if and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chordal Graph
In the mathematical area of graph theory, a chordal graph is one in which all cycles of four or more vertices have a ''chord'', which is an edge that is not part of the cycle but connects two vertices of the cycle. Equivalently, every induced cycle in the graph should have exactly three vertices. The chordal graphs may also be characterized as the graphs that have perfect elimination orderings, as the graphs in which each minimal separator is a clique, and as the intersection graphs of subtrees of a tree. They are sometimes also called rigid circuit graphs. or triangulated graphs.. Chordal graphs are a subset of the perfect graphs. They may be recognized in linear time, and several problems that are hard on other classes of graphs such as graph coloring may be solved in polynomial time when the input is chordal. The treewidth of an arbitrary graph may be characterized by the size of the cliques in the chordal graphs that contain it. Perfect elimination and efficient recogniti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chromatic Number
In graph theory, graph coloring is a special case of graph labeling; it is an assignment of labels traditionally called "colors" to elements of a graph subject to certain constraints. In its simplest form, it is a way of coloring the vertices of a graph such that no two adjacent vertices are of the same color; this is called a vertex coloring. Similarly, an edge coloring assigns a color to each edge so that no two adjacent edges are of the same color, and a face coloring of a planar graph assigns a color to each face or region so that no two faces that share a boundary have the same color. Vertex coloring is often used to introduce graph coloring problems, since other coloring problems can be transformed into a vertex coloring instance. For example, an edge coloring of a graph is just a vertex coloring of its line graph, and a face coloring of a plane graph is just a vertex coloring of its dual. However, nonvertex coloring problems are often stated and studied asis. This is p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Independent Set (graph Theory)
In graph theory, an independent set, stable set, coclique or anticlique is a set of vertices in a graph, no two of which are adjacent. That is, it is a set S of vertices such that for every two vertices in S, there is no edge connecting the two. Equivalently, each edge in the graph has at most one endpoint in S. A set is independent if and only if it is a clique in the graph's complement. The size of an independent set is the number of vertices it contains. Independent sets have also been called "internally stable sets", of which "stable set" is a shortening. A maximal independent set is an independent set that is not a proper subset of any other independent set. A maximum independent set is an independent set of largest possible size for a given graph G. This size is called the independence number of ''G'' and is usually denoted by \alpha(G). The optimization problem of finding such a set is called the maximum independent set problem. It is a strongly NPhard problem. As such, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Trianglefree Graph
In the mathematical area of graph theory, a trianglefree graph is an undirected graph in which no three vertices form a triangle of edges. Trianglefree graphs may be equivalently defined as graphs with clique number ≤ 2, graphs with girth ≥ 4, graphs with no induced 3cycle, or locally independent graphs. By Turán's theorem, the ''n''vertex trianglefree graph with the maximum number of edges is a complete bipartite graph in which the numbers of vertices on each side of the bipartition are as equal as possible. Triangle finding problem The triangle finding problem is the problem of determining whether a graph is trianglefree or not. When the graph does contain a triangle, algorithms are often required to output three vertices which form a triangle in the graph. It is possible to test whether a graph with edges is trianglefree in time . Another approach is to find the trace of , where is the adjacency matrix of the graph. The trace is zero if and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 