Multilateral Trading Facility
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Multilateral Trading Facility
A multilateral trading facility (MTF) is a European Union regulatory term for a self-regulated financial trading venue. These are alternatives to the traditional stock exchanges where a market is made in securities, typically using electronic systems. The concept was introduced within the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID), a European Directive designed to harmonise retail investors protection and allow investment firms to provide services throughout the EU. Article 4 (15) of MiFID describes MTF as ''multilateral system, operated by an investment firm or a market operator, which brings together multiple third-party buying and selling interests in financial instruments – in the system and in accordance with non-discretionary rules – in a way that results in a contract''. The term 'non-discretionary rules' means that the investment firm operating an MTF has no discretion as to how interests may interact. Interests are brought together by forming a contract an ...
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European Union
The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has often been described as a '' sui generis'' political entity (without precedent or comparison) combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation. Containing 5.8per cent of the world population in 2020, the EU generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of around trillion in 2021, constituting approximately 18per cent of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all EU states but Bulgaria have a very high Human Development Index according to the United Nations Development Programme. Its cornerstone, the Customs Union, paved the way to establishing an internal single market based on standardised legal framework and legislation that applies in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where the states have agreed ...
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Organised Trading Facility
Organizing or organized may refer to: * Organizing (management), a process of coordinating task goals and activities to resources * Community organizing, in which communities come together to act in their shared self-interest * Professional organizing, an industry build around creating organizational systems for individuals and businesses * Union organizing, the process of establishing trade unions ** Organizing Institute, a unit within the Organizing and Field Services Department of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) ** Organizing model, a broad conception of organizations such as trade unions * Organizing principle, a core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a value * Organizing vision, a term developed by E. Burton Swanson and Neil Ramiller that defines how a vision is formed, a vision of how to organize structures and processes in regard to an information systems innovation * ''Organi ...
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Dark Pool
In finance, a dark pool (also black pool) is a private forum (alternative trading system or ATS) for trading securities, derivatives, and other financial instruments."The New Financial Industry"
(March 30, 2014). 65 ''Alabama Law Review'' 567 (2014); Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-11; via SSRN.
Liquidity on these markets is called dark pool liquidity. The bulk of dark pool trades represent large trades by s that are offered away from public ex ...
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Crossing Network
A crossing network is an alternative trading system (ATS) that matches buy and sell orders electronically for execution without first routing the order to an exchange or other displayed market, such as an electronic communication network (ECN), which displays a public quote. These broker-dealers employ computerized systems to match buyers and sellers of large blocks of shares without using the stock exchange. Depending on the particular broker-dealer's system and the type of securities traded (e.g., exchange-listed or OTC securities), these crosses could occur at various times during the day, or after the close of trading, and could be priced at the last sale price or some other objective price, such as the midpoint between the bid and offer or the volume weighted average price (VWAP). The advantage of the crossing network is the ability to execute a large block order without impacting the public quote. Crossing networks tend to be used for highly liquid stocks and offer money manag ...
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Swap Execution Facility
A Swap Execution Facility (SEF) (sometimes Swaps Execution Facility) is a platform for financial swap trading that provides pre-trade information (i.e. bid and offer prices) and a mechanism for executing swap transactions among eligible participants. Swap Execution Facilities are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. The regulated trading of certain swaps is a result of requirements in the United States by the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (in particular Title VII). Financial swaps have traditionally been traded in over-the-counter (OTC) markets. However, regulatory changes have driven reporting, clearing, and settlement functions to SEFs, which are much more tightly regulated. The SEF-execution mandate responds to one of the four derivatives-related European Union, have proposed similar changes in swap market structure but none have yet been adopted. As of October 2, 2013, any swap listed ...
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Electronic Communication Network
An electronic communication network (ECN) is a type of computerized forum or network that facilitates the trading of financial products outside traditional stock exchanges. An ECN is generally an electronic system that widely disseminates orders entered by market makers to third parties and permits the orders to be executed against in whole or in part. The primary products that are traded on ECNs are stocks and currencies. ECNs are generally passive computer-driven networks that internally match limit orders and charge a very small per share transaction fee (often a fraction of a cent per share). The first ECN, Instinet, was created in 1969. ECNs increase competition among trading firms by lowering transaction costs, giving clients full access to their order books, and offering order matching outside traditional exchange hours. ECNs are sometimes also referred to as alternative trading systems or alternative trading networks. History The term ECN was used by the SEC to define, " ...
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Alternative Trading System
Alternative trading system (ATS) is a US and Canadian regulatory term for a non-exchange trading venue that matches buyers and sellers to find counterparties for transactions. Alternative trading systems are typically regulated as broker-dealers rather than as exchanges (although an alternative trading system can apply to be regulated as a securities exchange). In general, for regulatory purposes, an alternative trading system is an organization or system that provides or maintains a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers of securities, but does not set rules for subscribers (other than rules for the conduct of subscribers trading on the system). An ATS must be approved by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and is an alternative to a traditional stock exchange. The equivalent term under European legislation is a multilateral trading facility (MTF). These venues play an important role in public markets for allowing alternati ...
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Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs () is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company. Founded in 1869, Goldman Sachs is headquartered at 200 West Street in Lower Manhattan, with regional headquarters in London, Warsaw, Bangalore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Dallas and Salt Lake City, and additional offices in other international financial centers. Goldman Sachs is the second largest investment bank in the world by revenue and is ranked 57th on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. It is considered a systemically important financial institution by the Financial Stability Board. The company has been criticized for a lack of ethical standards, working with dictatorial regimes, close relationships with the U.S. federal government via a "revolving door" of former employees, and driving up prices of commodities through futures speculation. While the company has appeared on the 100 Best Companies to Work For list compiled by '' Fortune'', ...
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Nomura Group
is a Japanese financial holding company and a principal member of the Nomura Group. It, along with its broker-dealer, banking and other financial services subsidiaries, provides investment, financing and related services to individual, institutional, and government customers on a global basis with an emphasis on securities businesses. History Origins The history of Nomura began on December 25, 1925, when Nomura Securities Co., Ltd. (NSC) was established in Osaka, as a spin-off from Securities Dept. of Osaka Nomura Bank Co., Ltd (the present day Resona Bank). NSC initially focused on the bond market. It was named after its founder Tokushichi Nomura II, a wealthy Japanese businessman and investor. He had earlier established Osaka Nomura bank in 1918, based on the Mitsui zaibatsu model with a capital of ¥10 million. Like the majority of Japanese conglomerates, or zaibatsu, its origins were in Osaka, but today operates out of Tokyo. NSC gained the authority to trade stoc ...
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High-frequency Trading
High-frequency trading (HFT) is a type of algorithmic financial trading characterized by high speeds, high turnover rates, and high order-to-trade ratios that leverages high-frequency financial data and electronic trading tools. While there is no single definition of HFT, among its key attributes are highly sophisticated algorithms, co-location, and very short-term investment horizons. HFT can be viewed as a primary form of algorithmic trading in finance.Lin, Tom C. W. "The New Financial Industry" (March 30, 2014). 65 Alabama Law Review 567 (2014); Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-11; . Specifically, it is the use of sophisticated technological tools and computer algorithms to rapidly trade securities. HFT uses proprietary trading strategies carried out by computers to move in and out of positions in seconds or fractions of a second. In 2017, Aldridge and Krawciw estimated that in 2016 HFT on average initiated 10–40% of trading volume in equities, and 10 ...
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Financial Conduct Authority
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) is a financial regulatory body in the United Kingdom, but operates independently of the UK Government, and is financed by charging fees to members of the financial services industry. The FCA regulates financial firms providing services to consumers and maintains the integrity of the financial markets in the United Kingdom. It focuses on the regulation of conduct by both retail and wholesale financial services firms.Archived here.
Like its predecessor the FSA, the FCA is structured as a

LMAX Exchange
LMAX Group is a global financial technology company which operates multiple institutional execution venues for electronic foreign exchange (FX) and crypto currency trading. The Group's portfolio includes LMAX Exchange, LMAX Global and LMAX Digital. Headquartered in London, UK, LMAX Group builds and runs its own global exchange infrastructure, which includes matching engines in London, New York and Tokyo. The company has regional offices in New York, Chicago, Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo and Auckland. History LMAX Group was launched in 2010 to offer exchange-style execution and regulated, rules-based, no ‘last look’ trading environment which is governed by the LMAX Rulebook, ensuring fully transparent and fair execution for all its clients and market makers. Servicing funds, banks, brokerages, asset managers and proprietary trading firms, the company offers an anonymous, regulated and rules-based trading environment with strict price and time priority order execution at ...
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