Modular Lattice
In the branch of mathematics called order theory, a modular lattice is a lattice that satisfies the following self dual condition, ;Modular law: implies where are arbitrary elements in the lattice, ≤ is the partial order, and ∨ and ∧ (called join and meet respectively) are the operations of the lattice. This phrasing emphasizes an interpretation in terms of projection onto the sublattice , a fact known as the diamond isomorphism theorem. An alternative but equivalent condition stated as an equation (see below) emphasizes that modular lattices form a variety in the sense of universal algebra. Modular lattices arise naturally in algebra and in many other areas of mathematics. In these scenarios, modularity is an abstraction of the 2nd Isomorphism Theorem. For example, the subspaces of a vector space (and more generally the submodules of a module over a ring) form a modular lattice. In a not necessarily modular lattice, there may s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

2d Modular Lattice
D, or d, is the fourth letter in the Latin alphabet, used in the modern English alphabet, the alphabets of other western European languages and others worldwide. Its name in English is ''dee'' (pronounced ), plural ''dees''. History The Semitic letter Dāleth may have developed from the logogram for a fish or a door. There are many different Egyptian hieroglyphs that might have inspired this. In Semitic, Ancient Greek and Latin, the letter represented ; in the Etruscan alphabet the letter was archaic, but still retained (see letter B). The equivalent Greek letter is Delta, Δ. Architecture The minuscule (lowercase) form of 'd' consists of a lowerstory left bowl and a stem ascender. It most likely developed by gradual variations on the majuscule (capital) form 'D', and today now composed as a stem with a full lobe to the right. In handwriting, it was common to start the arc to the left of the vertical stroke, resulting in a serif at the top of the arc. This ser ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Smallest Nonmodular Lattice 2
Small may refer to: Science and technology * SMALL, an ALGOLlike programming language * Small (anatomy), the lumbar region of the back * ''Small'' (journal), a nanoscience publication * <small>, an HTML element that defines smaller text Arts and entertainment Fictional characters * Small, in the British children's show Big & Small Other uses * Small, of little size * Small (surname) * "Small", a song from the album '' The Cosmos Rocks'' by Queen + Paul Rodgers See also * Smal (other) * List of people known as the Small The Small is an epithet applied to: *Bolko II the Small (c. 1312–1368), Duke of Świdnica, of Jawor and Lwówek, of Lusatia, over half of Brzeg and Oława, of Siewierz, and over half of Głogów and Ścinawa *Dionysius Exiguus (c. 470–c. 5 ... * Smalls (other) {{disambiguation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the modu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Modular Lattice With 3 Generators (x,y,z)
Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to do something, without having to obey anyone/anything * Freethought, a position that beliefs should be formed only on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents over their actions and decisions * Free of charge, also known as gratis. See Gratis vs libre. Computing * Free (programming), a function that releases dynamically allocated memory for reuse * Free format, a file format which can be used without restrictions * Free software, software usable and distributable with few restrictions and no payment * Freeware, a broader class of software available at no cost Mathematics * Free object ** Free abelian group ** Free algebra ** Free group ** Free module ** Free semigroup * Free variable People * Free (surname) * Free (rapper) (born 1968), or Free Marie, American rapper and media pers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ascending Chain Condition
In mathematics, the ascending chain condition (ACC) and descending chain condition (DCC) are finiteness properties satisfied by some algebraic structures, most importantly ideals in certain commutative rings.Jacobson (2009), p. 142 and 147 These conditions played an important role in the development of the structure theory of commutative rings in the works of David Hilbert, Emmy Noether, and Emil Artin. The conditions themselves can be stated in an abstract form, so that they make sense for any partially ordered set. This point of view is useful in abstract algebraic dimension theory due to Gabriel and Rentschler. Definition A partially ordered set (poset) ''P'' is said to satisfy the ascending chain condition (ACC) if no infinite strictly ascending sequence :a_1 < a_2 < a_3 < \cdots of elements of ''P'' exists. Equivalently,Proof: first, a strictly increasing sequence cannot stabilize, obviously. Conversely, suppose there is an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

French Language
French ( or ) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the IndoEuropean languages, IndoEuropean family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from GalloRomance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) largely supplanted. French was also substratum, influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic languages, Germanic) Frankish language of the postRoman Franks, Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's French colonial empire, past overseas expansion, there are numerous Frenchbased creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole language, Haitian Creole. A Frenchspeaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French. French is an official language in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice Theorem
In group theory, the correspondence theorem (also the lattice theorem,W.R. Scott: ''Group Theory'', Prentice Hall, 1964, p. 27. and variously and ambiguously the third and fourth isomorphism theorem ) states that if N is a normal subgroup of a group G, then there exists a bijection from the set of all subgroups A of G containing N, onto the set of all subgroups of the quotient group G/N. The structure of the subgroups of G/N is exactly the same as the structure of the subgroups of G containing N, with N collapsed to the identity element. Specifically, if : ''G'' is a group, : N \triangleleft G, a normal subgroup of ''G'', : \mathcal = \, the set of all subgroups ''A'' of ''G'' that contain ''N'', and : \mathcal = \, the set of all subgroups of ''G''/''N'', then there is a bijective map \phi: \mathcal \to \mathcal such that : \phi(A) = A/N for all A \in \mathcal. One further has that if ''A'' and ''B'' are in \mathcal then * A \subseteq B if and only if A/N \subseteq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism Theorem
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, the isomorphism theorems (also known as Noether's isomorphism theorems) are theorems that describe the relationship between quotients, homomorphisms, and subobjects. Versions of the theorems exist for groups, rings, vector spaces, modules, Lie algebras, and various other algebraic structures. In universal algebra, the isomorphism theorems can be generalized to the context of algebras and congruences. History The isomorphism theorems were formulated in some generality for homomorphisms of modules by Emmy Noether in her paper ''Abstrakter Aufbau der Idealtheorie in algebraischen Zahl und Funktionenkörpern'', which was published in 1927 in Mathematische Annalen. Less general versions of these theorems can be found in work of Richard Dedekind and previous papers by Noether. Three years later, B.L. van der Waerden published his influential '' Moderne Algebra'' the first abstract algebra textbook that took the groupsrin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Annals Of Mathematics
The ''Annals of Mathematics'' is a mathematical journal published every two months by Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study. History The journal was established as ''The Analyst'' in 1874 and with Joel E. Hendricks as the founding editorinchief. It was "intended to afford a medium for the presentation and analysis of any and all questions of interest or importance in pure and applied Mathematics, embracing especially all new and interesting discoveries in theoretical and practical astronomy, mechanical philosophy, and engineering". It was published in Des Moines, Iowa, and was the earliest American mathematics journal to be published continuously for more than a year or two. This incarnation of the journal ceased publication after its tenth year, in 1883, giving as an explanation Hendricks' declining health, but Hendricks made arrangements to have it taken over by new management, and it was continued from March 1884 as the ''Annals of Mathematics''. The ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distributive Lattice
In mathematics, a distributive lattice is a lattice in which the operations of join and meet distribute over each other. The prototypical examples of such structures are collections of sets for which the lattice operations can be given by set union and intersection. Indeed, these lattices of sets describe the scenery completely: every distributive lattice is—up to isomorphism—given as such a lattice of sets. Definition As in the case of arbitrary lattices, one can choose to consider a distributive lattice ''L'' either as a structure of order theory or of universal algebra. Both views and their mutual correspondence are discussed in the article on lattices. In the present situation, the algebraic description appears to be more convenient. A lattice (''L'',∨,∧) is distributive if the following additional identity holds for all ''x'', ''y'', and ''z'' in ''L'': : ''x'' ∧ (''y'' ∨ ''z'') = (''x'' ∧ ''y'') ∨ (''x'' ∧ ''z''). Viewing lattices as partiall ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice Of Subgroups
In mathematics, the lattice of subgroups of a group G is the lattice whose elements are the subgroups of G, with the partial order relation being set inclusion. In this lattice, the join of two subgroups is the subgroup generated by their union, and the meet of two subgroups is their intersection. Example The dihedral group Dih4 has ten subgroups, counting itself and the trivial subgroup. Five of the eight group elements generate subgroups of order two, and the other two nonidentity elements both generate the same cyclic subgroup of order four. In addition, there are two subgroups of the form Z2 × Z2, generated by pairs of ordertwo elements. The lattice formed by these ten subgroups is shown in the illustration. This example also shows that the lattice of all subgroups of a group is not a modular lattice in general. Indeed, this particular lattice contains the forbidden "pentagon" ''N''5 as a sublattice. Properties For any ''A'', ''B'', and ''C'' subgroups o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 