Maxima And Minima
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the ''local'' or ''relative'' extrema), or on the entire domain (the ''global'' or ''absolute'' extrema). Pierre de Fermat was one of the first mathematicians to propose a general technique, adequality, for finding the maxima and minima of functions. As defined in set theory, the maximum and minimum of a set are the greatest and least elements in the set, respectively. Unbounded infinite sets, such as the set of real numbers, have no minimum or maximum. Definition A realvalued function ''f'' defined on a domain ''X'' has a global (or absolute) maximum point at ''x''∗, if for all ''x'' in ''X''. Similarly, the function has a global (or absolute) minimum point at ''x''∗, if for all ''x'' in ''X''. The value of the function a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Extrema Example Original
Extrema may refer to: * Extrema (mathematics), maxima and minima values * Extremities (other) * Extrema, Minas Gerais, town in Brazil * Extrema, Rondônia, town in Brazil * Extrema (band), Antiprotestionarialconstructionaryism {{disambig, geo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topologic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Inflection Point
In differential calculus and differential geometry, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (British English: inflexion) is a point on a smooth plane curve at which the curvature changes sign. In particular, in the case of the graph of a function, it is a point where the function changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa. For the graph of a function of differentiability class (''f'', its first derivative ''f, and its second derivative ''f'''', exist and are continuous), the condition ''f'' = 0'' can also be used to find an inflection point since a point of ''f'' = 0'' must be passed to change ''f'''' from a positive value (concave upward) to a negative value (concave downward) or vice versa as ''f'''' is continuous; an inflection point of the curve is where ''f'' = 0'' and changes its sign at the point (from positive to negative or from negative to positive). A point where the second derivative vanishes bu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Piecewise
In mathematics, a piecewisedefined function (also called a piecewise function, a hybrid function, or definition by cases) is a function defined by multiple subfunctions, where each subfunction applies to a different interval in the domain. Piecewise definition is actually a way of expressing the function, rather than a characteristic of the function itself. A distinct, but related notion is that of a property holding piecewise for a function, used when the domain can be divided into intervals on which the property holds. Unlike for the notion above, this is actually a property of the function itself. A piecewise linear function (which happens to be also continuous) is depicted as an example. Notation and interpretation Piecewise functions can be defined using the common functional notation, where the body of the function is an array of functions and associated subdomains. These subdomains together must cover the whole domain; often it is also required that they are pa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Higherorder Derivative Test
In calculus, a derivative test uses the derivatives of a function to locate the critical points of a function and determine whether each point is a local maximum, a local minimum, or a saddle point. Derivative tests can also give information about the concavity of a function. The usefulness of derivatives to find extrema is proved mathematically by Fermat's theorem of stationary points. Firstderivative test The firstderivative test examines a function's monotonic properties (where the function is increasing or decreasing), focusing on a particular point in its domain. If the function "switches" from increasing to decreasing at the point, then the function will achieve a highest value at that point. Similarly, if the function "switches" from decreasing to increasing at the point, then it will achieve a least value at that point. If the function fails to "switch" and remains increasing or remains decreasing, then no highest or least value is achieved. One can examine a fun ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Derivative Test
In calculus, a derivative test uses the derivatives of a function to locate the critical points of a function and determine whether each point is a local maximum, a local minimum, or a saddle point. Derivative tests can also give information about the concavity of a function. The usefulness of derivatives to find extrema is proved mathematically by Fermat's theorem of stationary points. Firstderivative test The firstderivative test examines a function's monotonic properties (where the function is increasing or decreasing), focusing on a particular point in its domain. If the function "switches" from increasing to decreasing at the point, then the function will achieve a highest value at that point. Similarly, if the function "switches" from decreasing to increasing at the point, then it will achieve a least value at that point. If the function fails to "switch" and remains increasing or remains decreasing, then no highest or least value is achieved. One can examine a fun ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

First Derivative Test
In calculus, a derivative test uses the derivatives of a function to locate the critical points of a function and determine whether each point is a local maximum, a local minimum, or a saddle point. Derivative tests can also give information about the concavity of a function. The usefulness of derivatives to find extrema is proved mathematically by Fermat's theorem of stationary points. Firstderivative test The firstderivative test examines a function's monotonic properties (where the function is increasing or decreasing), focusing on a particular point in its domain. If the function "switches" from increasing to decreasing at the point, then the function will achieve a highest value at that point. Similarly, if the function "switches" from decreasing to increasing at the point, then it will achieve a least value at that point. If the function fails to "switch" and remains increasing or remains decreasing, then no highest or least value is achieved. One can examine a fun ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Critical Point (mathematics)
Critical point is a wide term used in many branches of mathematics. When dealing with functions of a real variable, a critical point is a point in the domain of the function where the function is either not differentiable or the derivative is equal to zero. When dealing with complex variables, a critical point is, similarly, a point in the function's domain where it is either not holomorphic or the derivative is equal to zero. Likewise, for a function of several real variables, a critical point is a value in its domain where the gradient is undefined or is equal to zero. The value of the function at a critical point is a critical value. This sort of definition extends to differentiable maps between and a critical point being, in this case, a point where the rank of the Jacobian matrix is not maximal. It extends further to differentiable maps between differentiable manifolds, as the points where the rank of the Jacobian matrix decreases. In this case, critical points ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fermat's Theorem (stationary Points)
In mathematics, Fermat's theorem (also known as interior extremum theorem) is a method to find local maxima and minima of differentiable functions on open sets by showing that every local extremum of the function is a stationary point (the function's derivative is zero at that point). Fermat's theorem is a theorem in real analysis, named after Pierre de Fermat. By using Fermat's theorem, the potential extrema of a function \displaystyle f, with derivative \displaystyle f', are found by solving an equation in \displaystyle f'. Fermat's theorem gives only a necessary condition for extreme function values, as some stationary points are inflection points (not a maximum or minimum). The function's second derivative, if it exists, can sometimes be used to determine whether a stationary point is a maximum or minimum. Statement One way to state Fermat's theorem is that, if a function has a local extremum at some point and is differentiable there, then the function's derivative at th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differentiable Functions
In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. In other words, the graph of a differentiable function has a nonvertical tangent line at each interior point in its domain. A differentiable function is smooth (the function is locally well approximated as a linear function at each interior point) and does not contain any break, angle, or cusp. If is an interior point in the domain of a function , then is said to be ''differentiable at'' if the derivative f'(x_0) exists. In other words, the graph of has a nonvertical tangent line at the point . is said to be differentiable on if it is differentiable at every point of . is said to be ''continuously differentiable'' if its derivative is also a continuous function over the domain of the function f. Generally speaking, is said to be of class if its first k derivatives f^(x), f^(x), \ldots, f^(x) exist and are continuous over the domain of the fu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Extreme Value Theorem
In calculus, the extreme value theorem states that if a realvalued function f is continuous on the closed interval ,b/math>, then f must attain a maximum and a minimum, each at least once. That is, there exist numbers c and d in ,b/math> such that: f(c) \ge f(x) \ge f(d)\quad \forall x\in ,b/math> The extreme value theorem is more specific than the related boundedness theorem, which states merely that a continuous function f on the closed interval ,b/math> is bounded on that interval; that is, there exist real numbers m and M such that: m \le f(x) \le M\quad \forall x \in , b This does not say that M and m are necessarily the maximum and minimum values of f on the interval ,b which is what the extreme value theorem stipulates must also be the case. The extreme value theorem is used to prove Rolle's theorem. In a formulation due to Karl Weierstrass, this theorem states that a continuous function from a nonempty compact space to a subset of the real numbers attains ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 