Logical Matrix
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Logical Matrix
A logical matrix, binary matrix, relation matrix, Boolean matrix, or (0, 1) matrix is a matrix with entries from the Boolean domain Such a matrix can be used to represent a binary relation between a pair of finite sets. Matrix representation of a relation If ''R'' is a binary relation between the finite indexed sets ''X'' and ''Y'' (so ), then ''R'' can be represented by the logical matrix ''M'' whose row and column indices index the elements of ''X'' and ''Y'', respectively, such that the entries of ''M'' are defined by :M_ = \begin 1 & (x_i, y_j) \in R, \\ 0 & (x_i, y_j) \not\in R. \end In order to designate the row and column numbers of the matrix, the sets ''X'' and ''Y'' are indexed with positive integers: ''i'' ranges from 1 to the cardinality (size) of ''X'', and ''j'' ranges from 1 to the cardinality of ''Y''. See the entry on indexed sets for more detail. Example The binary relation ''R'' on the set is defined so that ''aRb'' holds if and only if ''a' ...
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Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns, which is used to represent a mathematical object or a property of such an object. For example, \begin1 & 9 & -13 \\20 & 5 & -6 \end is a matrix with two rows and three columns. This is often referred to as a "two by three matrix", a "-matrix", or a matrix of dimension . Without further specifications, matrices represent linear maps, and allow explicit computations in linear algebra. Therefore, the study of matrices is a large part of linear algebra, and most properties and operations of abstract linear algebra can be expressed in terms of matrices. For example, matrix multiplication represents composition of linear maps. Not all matrices are related to linear algebra. This is, in particular, the case in graph theory, of incidence matrices, and adjacency matrices. ''This article focuses on matrices related to linear algebra, and, un ...
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Graph Theory
In mathematics, graph theory is the study of ''graphs'', which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of '' vertices'' (also called ''nodes'' or ''points'') which are connected by '' edges'' (also called ''links'' or ''lines''). A distinction is made between undirected graphs, where edges link two vertices symmetrically, and directed graphs, where edges link two vertices asymmetrically. Graphs are one of the principal objects of study in discrete mathematics. Definitions Definitions in graph theory vary. The following are some of the more basic ways of defining graphs and related mathematical structures. Graph In one restricted but very common sense of the term, a graph is an ordered pair G=(V,E) comprising: * V, a set of vertices (also called nodes or points); * E \subseteq \, a set of edges (also called links or lines), which are unordered pairs of vertices (that is, an edge is associated wi ...
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Identity Matrix
In linear algebra, the identity matrix of size n is the n\times n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. Terminology and notation The identity matrix is often denoted by I_n, or simply by I if the size is immaterial or can be trivially determined by the context. I_1 = \begin 1 \end ,\ I_2 = \begin 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \end ,\ I_3 = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end ,\ \dots ,\ I_n = \begin 1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 0 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \end. The term unit matrix has also been widely used, but the term ''identity matrix'' is now standard. The term ''unit matrix'' is ambiguous, because it is also used for a matrix of ones and for any unit of the ring of all n\times n matrices. In some fields, such as group theory or quantum mechanics, the identity matrix is sometimes denoted by a boldface one, \mathbf, or called "id" (short for identity) ...
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Equality (mathematics)
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object. The equality between and is written , and pronounced equals . The symbol "" is called an "equals sign". Two objects that are not equal are said to be distinct. For example: * x=y means that and denote the same object. * The identity (x+1)^2=x^2+2x+1 means that if is any number, then the two expressions have the same value. This may also be interpreted as saying that the two sides of the equals sign represent the same function. * \ = \ if and only if P(x) \Leftrightarrow Q(x). This assertion, which uses set-builder notation, means that if the elements satisfying the property P(x) are the same as the elements satisfying Q(x), then the two uses of the set-builder notation define the same set. This property is often expressed as "two sets that have t ...
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Go (game)
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played to the present day. A 2016 survey by the International Go Federation's 75 member nations found that there are over 46 million people worldwide who know how to play Go and over 20 million current players, the majority of whom live in East Asia. The playing pieces are called stones. One player uses the white stones and the other, black. The players take turns placing the stones on the vacant intersections (''points'') of a board. Once placed on the board, stones may not be moved, but stones are removed from the board if the stone (or group of stones) is surrounded by opposing stones on all orthogonally adjacent points, in which case the stone or group is ''captured''. The game proceeds until neither player wishes to make another move. Wh ...
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Pixel
In digital imaging, a pixel (abbreviated px), pel, or picture element is the smallest addressable element in a raster image, or the smallest point in an all points addressable display device. In most digital display devices, pixels are the smallest element that can be manipulated through software. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable. In color imaging systems, a color is typically represented by three or four component intensities such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. In some contexts (such as descriptions of camera sensors), ''pixel'' refers to a single scalar element of a multi-component representation (called a ''photosite'' in the camera sensor context, although '' sensel'' is sometimes used), while in yet other contexts (like MRI) it may refer to a set of component intensities for a spatial position. Etymology ...
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Raster Graphics
upright=1, The Smiley, smiley face in the top left corner is a raster image. When enlarged, individual pixels appear as squares. Enlarging further, each pixel can be analyzed, with their colors constructed through combination of the values for red, green and blue. In computer graphics and digital photography, a raster graphic represents a two-dimensional picture as a rectangular matrix or grid of square pixels, viewable via a computer display, paper, or other display medium. A raster is technically characterized by the width and height of the image in pixels and by the number of bits per pixel. Raster images are stored in image files with varying dissemination, production, generation, and acquisition formats. The printing and prepress industries know raster graphics as contones (from ''continuous tones''). In contrast, line art is usually implemented as vector graphics in digital systems. Many raster manipulations map directly onto the mathematical formalisms of lin ...
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Quadratic Sieve
The quadratic sieve algorithm (QS) is an integer factorization algorithm and, in practice, the second fastest method known (after the general number field sieve). It is still the fastest for integers under 100 decimal digits or so, and is considerably simpler than the number field sieve. It is a general-purpose factorization algorithm, meaning that its running time depends solely on the size of the integer to be factored, and not on special structure or properties. It was invented by Carl Pomerance in 1981 as an improvement to Schroeppel's linear sieve. Basic aim The algorithm attempts to set up a congruence of squares modulo ''n'' (the integer to be factorized), which often leads to a factorization of ''n''. The algorithm works in two phases: the ''data collection'' phase, where it collects information that may lead to a congruence of squares; and the ''data processing'' phase, where it puts all the data it has collected into a matrix and solves it to obtain a congruence of sq ...
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Prime-counting Function
In mathematics, the prime-counting function is the function counting the number of prime numbers less than or equal to some real number ''x''. It is denoted by (''x'') (unrelated to the number ). History Of great interest in number theory is the growth rate of the prime-counting function. It was conjectured in the end of the 18th century by Gauss and by Legendre to be approximately : \frac x where log is the natural logarithm, in the sense that :\lim_ \frac=1. This statement is the prime number theorem. An equivalent statement is :\lim_\pi(x) / \operatorname(x)=1 where li is the logarithmic integral function. The prime number theorem was first proved in 1896 by Jacques Hadamard and by Charles de la Vallée Poussin independently, using properties of the Riemann zeta function introduced by Riemann in 1859. Proofs of the prime number theorem not using the zeta function or complex analysis were found around 1948 by Atle Selberg and by Paul Erdős (for the most par ...
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Smooth Number
In number theory, an ''n''-smooth (or ''n''-friable) number is an integer whose prime factors are all less than or equal to ''n''. For example, a 7-smooth number is a number whose every prime factor is at most 7, so 49 = 72 and 15750 = 2 × 32 × 53 × 7 are both 7-smooth, while 11 and 702 = 2 × 33 × 13 are not 7-smooth. The term seems to have been coined by Leonard Adleman. Smooth numbers are especially important in cryptography, which relies on factorization of integers. The 2-smooth numbers are just the powers of 2, while 5-smooth numbers are known as regular numbers. Definition A positive integer is called B-smooth if none of its prime factors are greater than B. For example, 1,620 has prime factorization 22 × 34 × 5; therefore 1,620 is 5-smooth because none of its prime factors are greater than 5. This definition includes numbers that lack some of the smaller prime factors; for example, both 10 and 12 are 5-smooth, even though they miss out the prime factors 3 and 5 ...
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Square-free Integer
In mathematics, a square-free integer (or squarefree integer) is an integer which is divisible by no square number other than 1. That is, its prime factorization has exactly one factor for each prime that appears in it. For example, is square-free, but is not, because 18 is divisible by . The smallest positive square-free numbers are Square-free factorization Every positive integer n can be factored in a unique way as n=\prod_^k q_i^i, where the q_i different from one are square-free integers that are pairwise coprime. This is called the ''square-free factorization'' of . To construct the square-free factorization, let n=\prod_^h p_j^ be the prime factorization of n, where the p_j are distinct prime numbers. Then the factors of the square-free factorization are defined as q_i=\prod_p_j. An integer is square-free if and only if q_i=1 for all i > 1. An integer greater than one is the kth power of another integer if and only if k is a divisor of all i such that q_i\neq 1. T ...
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Bipartite Graph
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a bipartite graph (or bigraph) is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint and independent sets U and V, that is every edge connects a vertex in U to one in V. Vertex sets U and V are usually called the ''parts'' of the graph. Equivalently, a bipartite graph is a graph that does not contain any odd-length cycles. The two sets U and V may be thought of as a coloring of the graph with two colors: if one colors all nodes in U blue, and all nodes in V red, each edge has endpoints of differing colors, as is required in the graph coloring problem.. In contrast, such a coloring is impossible in the case of a non-bipartite graph, such as a triangle: after one node is colored blue and another red, the third vertex of the triangle is connected to vertices of both colors, preventing it from being assigned either color. One often writes G=(U,V,E) to denote a bipartite graph whose partition has the parts U and V, with E denot ...
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