Linear Functional
In mathematics, a linear form (also known as a linear functional, a oneform, or a covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars (often, the real numbers or the complex numbers). If is a vector space over a field , the set of all linear functionals from to is itself a vector space over with addition and scalar multiplication defined pointwise. This space is called the dual space of , or sometimes the algebraic dual space, when a topological dual space is also considered. It is often denoted , p. 19, §3.1 or, when the field is understood, V^*; other notations are also used, such as V', V^ or V^. When vectors are represented by column vectors (as is common when a basis is fixed), then linear functionals are represented as row vectors, and their values on specific vectors are given by matrix products (with the row vector on the left). Examples * The constant zero function, mapping every vector to zero, is trivially a linear functional. * Indexing int ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sampling (signal Processing)
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuoustime signal to a discretetime signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave to a sequence of "samples". A sample is a value of the signal at a point in time and/or space; this definition differs from the usage in statistics, which refers to a set of such values. A sampler is a subsystem or operation that extracts samples from a continuous signal. A theoretical ideal sampler produces samples equivalent to the instantaneous value of the continuous signal at the desired points. The original signal can be reconstructed from a sequence of samples, up to the Nyquist limit, by passing the sequence of samples through a type of lowpass filter called a reconstruction filter. Theory Functions of space, time, or any other dimension can be sampled, and similarly in two or more dimensions. For functions that vary with time, let ''S''(''t'') be a continuous function (or "signal") to be sampled, and let samp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equation Of A Line
In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, depth, or curvature. Thus, lines are onedimensional objects, though they may exist in two, three, or higher dimension spaces. The word ''line'' may also refer to a line segment in everyday life, which has two points to denote its ends. Lines can be referred by two points that lay on it (e.g., \overleftrightarrow) or by a single letter (e.g., \ell). Euclid described a line as "breadthless length" which "lies evenly with respect to the points on itself"; he introduced several postulates as basic unprovable properties from which he constructed all of geometry, which is now called Euclidean geometry to avoid confusion with other geometries which have been introduced since the end of the 19th century (such as nonEuclidean, projective and affine geometry). In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry is described. For instance, in analyt ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lagrange Interpolation
In numerical analysis, the Lagrange interpolating polynomial is the unique polynomial of lowest degree that interpolates a given set of data. Given a data set of coordinate pairs (x_j, y_j) with 0 \leq j \leq k, the x_j are called ''nodes'' and the y_j are called ''values''. The Lagrange polynomial L(x) has degree \leq k and assumes each value at the corresponding node, L(x_j) = y_j. Although named after JosephLouis Lagrange, who published it in 1795, the method was first discovered in 1779 by Edward Waring. It is also an easy consequence of a formula published in 1783 by Leonhard Euler. Uses of Lagrange polynomials include the Newton–Cotes method of numerical integration and Shamir's secret sharing scheme in cryptography. For equispaced nodes, Lagrange interpolation is susceptible to Runge's phenomenon of large oscillation. Definition Given a set of k + 1 nodes \, which must all be distinct, x_j \neq x_m for indices j \neq m, the Lagrange basis for polynomials of degr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Basis Of A Vector Space
In mathematics, a set of vectors in a vector space is called a basis if every element of may be written in a unique way as a finite linear combination of elements of . The coefficients of this linear combination are referred to as components or coordinates of the vector with respect to . The elements of a basis are called . Equivalently, a set is a basis if its elements are linearly independent and every element of is a linear combination of elements of . In other words, a basis is a linearly independent spanning set. A vector space can have several bases; however all the bases have the same number of elements, called the ''dimension'' of the vector space. This article deals mainly with finitedimensional vector spaces. However, many of the principles are also valid for infinitedimensional vector spaces. Definition A basis of a vector space over a field (such as the real numbers or the complex numbers ) is a linearly independent subset of that spans . This mean ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riemann Integral
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and be ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral
In mathematics Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics ..., an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that describes Displacement (geometry), displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. The process of finding integrals is called integration. Along with Derivative, differentiation, integration is a fundamental, essential operation of calculus,Integral calculus is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. See and , for example. and serves as a tool to solve problems in mathematics and physics involving the area of an arbitrary shape, the length of a curve, and the volume of a solid, among others. The integrals enumerated here are those termed definite integrals, which can be int ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function Space
In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets. Often, the domain and/or codomain will have additional structure which is inherited by the function space. For example, the set of functions from any set into a vector space has a natural vector space structure given by pointwise addition and scalar multiplication. In other scenarios, the function space might inherit a topological or metric structure, hence the name function ''space''. In linear algebra Let be a vector space over a field and let be any set. The functions → can be given the structure of a vector space over where the operations are defined pointwise, that is, for any , : → , any in , and any in , define \begin (f+g)(x) &= f(x)+g(x) \\ (c\cdot f)(x) &= c\cdot f(x) \end When the domain has additional structure, one might consider instead the subset (or subspace) of all such functions which respect that structure. For example, if is also a vector space over , the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Functional Analysis
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limitrelated structure (e.g. Inner product space#Definition, inner product, Norm (mathematics)#Definition, norm, Topological space#Definition, topology, etc.) and the linear transformation, linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of function space, spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous function, continuous, unitary operator, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential equations, differential and integral equations. The usage of the word ''functional (mathematics), functional'' as a noun goes back to the calculus of variati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Main Diagonal
In linear algebra, the main diagonal (sometimes principal diagonal, primary diagonal, leading diagonal, major diagonal, or good diagonal) of a matrix A is the list of entries a_ where i = j. All offdiagonal elements are zero in a diagonal matrix. The following four matrices have their main diagonals indicated by red ones: :\begin \color & 0 & 0\\ 0 & \color & 0\\ 0 & 0 & \color\end \qquad \begin \color & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & \color & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & \color & 0 \end \qquad \begin \color & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & \color & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & \color \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end \qquad \begin \color & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & \color & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 &\color & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \color \end \qquad Antidiagonal The antidiagonal (sometimes counter diagonal, secondary diagonal, trailing diagonal, minor diagonal, off diagonal, or bad diagonal) of an order N square matrix B is the collection of entries b_ such that i + j = N+1 for all 1 \leq i, j \leq N. That is, it runs from the top right corner to the bottom left corner. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Trace (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the trace of a square matrix , denoted , is defined to be the sum of elements on the main diagonal (from the upper left to the lower right) of . The trace is only defined for a square matrix (). It can be proved that the trace of a matrix is the sum of its (complex) eigenvalues (counted with multiplicities). It can also be proved that for any two matrices and . This implies that similar matrices have the same trace. As a consequence one can define the trace of a linear operator mapping a finitedimensional vector space into itself, since all matrices describing such an operator with respect to a basis are similar. The trace is related to the derivative of the determinant (see Jacobi's formula). Definition The trace of an square matrix is defined as \operatorname(\mathbf) = \sum_^n a_ = a_ + a_ + \dots + a_ where denotes the entry on the th row and th column of . The entries of can be real numbers or (more generally) complex numbers. The trace is not de ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surjective Function
In mathematics, a surjective function (also known as surjection, or onto function) is a function that every element can be mapped from element so that . In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. It is not required that be unique; the function may map one or more elements of to the same element of . The term ''surjective'' and the related terms ''injective'' and ''bijective'' were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki, a group of mainly French 20thcentury mathematicians who, under this pseudonym, wrote a series of books presenting an exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French word '' sur'' means ''over'' or ''above'', and relates to the fact that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the function's codomain. Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to the image of its domain. Every surjective function has a right inverse assuming the axiom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 