Join (mathematics)
In mathematics, specifically order theory, the join of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is the supremum (least upper bound) of S, denoted \bigvee S, and similarly, the meet of S is the infimum (greatest lower bound), denoted \bigwedge S. In general, the join and meet of a subset of a partially ordered set need not exist. Join and meet are dual to one another with respect to order inversion. A partially ordered set in which all pairs have a join is a joinsemilattice. Dually, a partially ordered set in which all pairs have a meet is a meetsemilattice. A partially ordered set that is both a joinsemilattice and a meetsemilattice is a lattice. A lattice in which every subset, not just every pair, possesses a meet and a join is a complete lattice. It is also possible to define a partial lattice, in which not all pairs have a meet or join but the operations (when defined) satisfy certain axioms. The join/meet of a subset of a totally ordered set is simply the maximal/mi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Join And Meet
In mathematics, specifically order theory, the join of a subset S of a partially ordered set P is the supremum (least upper bound) of S, denoted \bigvee S, and similarly, the meet of S is the infimum (greatest lower bound), denoted \bigwedge S. In general, the join and meet of a subset of a partially ordered set need not exist. Join and meet are dual to one another with respect to order inversion. A partially ordered set in which all pairs have a join is a joinsemilattice. Dually, a partially ordered set in which all pairs have a meet is a meetsemilattice. A partially ordered set that is both a joinsemilattice and a meetsemilattice is a lattice. A lattice in which every subset, not just every pair, possesses a meet and a join is a complete lattice. It is also possible to define a partial lattice, in which not all pairs have a meet or join but the operations (when defined) satisfy certain axioms. The join/meet of a subset of a totally ordered set is simply the maximal/m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partial Function
In mathematics, a partial function from a set to a set is a function from a subset of (possibly itself) to . The subset , that is, the domain of viewed as a function, is called the domain of definition of . If equals , that is, if is defined on every element in , then is said to be total. More technically, a partial function is a binary relation over two sets that associates every element of the first set to ''at most'' one element of the second set; it is thus a functional binary relation. It generalizes the concept of a (total) function by not requiring every element of the first set to be associated to ''exactly'' one element of the second set. A partial function is often used when its exact domain of definition is not known or difficult to specify. This is the case in calculus, where, for example, the quotient of two functions is a partial function whose domain of definition cannot contain the zeros of the denominator. For this reason, in calculus, and more gene ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press A university press is an academic publishing house specializing in monographs and scholarly journals. Most are nonprofit organizations and an integral component of a large research university. They publish work that has been reviewed by schola ... in the world. It is also the King's Printer. Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. It became part of Cambridge University Press & Assessment, following a merger with Cambridge Assessment in 2021. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 Country, countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries. Its publishing includes more than 380 academic journals, monographs, reference works, school and uni ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partial Order
In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set. A poset consists of a set together with a binary relation indicating that, for certain pairs of elements in the set, one of the elements precedes the other in the ordering. The relation itself is called a "partial order." The word ''partial'' in the names "partial order" and "partially ordered set" is used as an indication that not every pair of elements needs to be comparable. That is, there may be pairs of elements for which neither element precedes the other in the poset. Partial orders thus generalize total orders, in which every pair is comparable. Informal definition A partial order defines a notion of comparison. Two elements ''x'' and ''y'' may stand in any of four mutually exclusive relationships to each other: either ''x'' ''y'', or ''x'' and ''y'' are ''incompar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Family Of Sets
In set theory and related branches of mathematics, a collection F of subsets of a given set S is called a family of subsets of S, or a family of sets over S. More generally, a collection of any sets whatsoever is called a family of sets, set family, or a set system. The term "collection" is used here because, in some contexts, a family of sets may be allowed to contain repeated copies of any given member, and in other contexts it may form a proper class rather than a set. A finite family of subsets of a finite set S is also called a ''hypergraph''. The subject of extremal set theory concerns the largest and smallest examples of families of sets satisfying certain restrictions. Examples The set of all subsets of a given set S is called the power set of S and is denoted by \wp(S). The power set \wp(S) of a given set S is a family of sets over S. A subset of S having k elements is called a ksubset of S. The ksubsets S^ of a set S form a family of sets. Let S = \. An ex ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Set
In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of a set is the set of all subsets of , including the empty set and itself. In axiomatic set theory (as developed, for example, in the ZFC axioms), the existence of the power set of any set is postulated by the axiom of power set. The powerset of is variously denoted as , , , \mathbb(S), or . The notation , meaning the set of all functions from S to a given set of two elements (e.g., ), is used because the powerset of can be identified with, equivalent to, or bijective to the set of all the functions from to the given two elements set. Any subset of is called a ''family of sets'' over . Example If is the set , then all the subsets of are * (also denoted \varnothing or \empty, the empty set or the null set) * * * * * * * and hence the power set of is . Properties If is a finite set with the cardinality (i.e., the number of all elements in the set is ), then the number of all the subsets of is . This fact as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Completeness (order Theory)
In the mathematical area of order theory, completeness properties assert the existence of certain infima or suprema of a given partially ordered set (poset). The most familiar example is the completeness of the real numbers. A special use of the term refers to complete partial orders or complete lattices. However, many other interesting notions of completeness exist. The motivation for considering completeness properties derives from the great importance of suprema (least upper bounds, joins, "\vee") and infima (greatest lower bounds, meets, "\wedge") to the theory of partial orders. Finding a supremum means to single out one distinguished least element from the set of upper bounds. On the one hand, these special elements often embody certain concrete properties that are interesting for the given application (such as being the least common multiple of a set of numbers or the union of a collection of sets). On the other hand, the knowledge that certain types of subsets are guaran ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Iterated Binary Operation
In mathematics, an iterated binary operation is an extension of a binary operation on a Set (mathematics), set ''S'' to a function (mathematics), function on finite sequences of elements of ''S'' through repeated application. Common examples include the extension of the addition operation to the summation operation, and the extension of the multiplication operation to the Product (mathematics), product operation. Other operations, e.g., the settheoretic operations Union (set theory), union and Intersection (set theory), intersection, are also often iterated, but the iterations are not given separate names. In print, summation and product are represented by special symbols; but other iterated operators often are denoted by larger variants of the symbol for the ordinary binary operator. Thus, the iterations of the four operations mentioned above are denoted :\sum,\ \prod,\ \bigcup, and \bigcap, respectively. More generally, iteration of a binary function is generally denoted by a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Empty Set
In mathematics, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Some axiomatic set theories ensure that the empty set exists by including an axiom of empty set, while in other theories, its existence can be deduced. Many possible properties of sets are vacuously true for the empty set. Any set other than the empty set is called nonempty. In some textbooks and popularizations, the empty set is referred to as the "null set". However, null set is a distinct notion within the context of measure theory, in which it describes a set of measure zero (which is not necessarily empty). The empty set may also be called the void set. Notation Common notations for the empty set include "", "\emptyset", and "∅". The latter two symbols were introduced by the Bourbaki group (specifically André Weil) in 1939, inspired by the letter Ø in the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. In the past, "0" was occasionally used as a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Binary Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the ''domain'', with elements of another set, called the ''codomain''. A binary relation over Set (mathematics), sets and is a new set of ordered pairs consisting of elements in and in . It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element is ''related'' to an element , if and only if the pair belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the ''binary relation''. A binary relation is the most studied special case of an Finitary relation, ary relation over sets , which is a subset of the Cartesian product X_1 \times \cdots \times X_n. An example of a binary relation is the "divides" relation over the set of prime numbers \mathbb and the set of integers \mathbb, in which each prime is related to each integer that is a Divisibility, multiple of , but not to an integer that is not a multiple of . In this relation, for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Upper Bound
In mathematics, particularly in order theory, an upper bound or majorant of a subset of some preordered set is an element of that is greater than or equal to every element of . Dually, a lower bound or minorant of is defined to be an element of that is less than or equal to every element of . A set with an upper (respectively, lower) bound is said to be bounded from above or majorized (respectively bounded from below or minorized) by that bound. The terms bounded above (bounded below) are also used in the mathematical literature for sets that have upper (respectively lower) bounds. Examples For example, is a lower bound for the set (as a subset of the integers or of the real numbers, etc.), and so is . On the other hand, is not a lower bound for since it is not smaller than every element in . The set has as both an upper bound and a lower bound; all other numbers are either an upper bound or a lower bound for that . Every subset of the natural numbers has a lowe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Idempotency
Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science whereby they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application. The concept of idempotence arises in a number of places in abstract algebra (in particular, in the theory of projectors and closure operators) and functional programming (in which it is connected to the property of referential transparency). The term was introduced by American mathematician Benjamin Peirce in 1870 in the context of elements of algebras that remain invariant when raised to a positive integer power, and literally means "(the quality of having) the same power", from + '' potence'' (same + power). Definition An element x of a set S equipped with a binary operator \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' under \cdot if : . The ''binary operation'' \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' if : . Examples * In the monoid (\mathbb, \times) of the natural numbers with multiplication, on ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 