Isomorphismclosed Subcategory
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a subcategory \mathcal of a category \mathcal is said to be isomorphism closed or replete if every \mathcalisomorphism h:A\to B with A\in\mathcal belongs to \mathcal. This implies that both B and h^:B\to A belong to \mathcal as well. A subcategory that is isomorphism closed and full is called strictly full. In the case of full subcategories it is sufficient to check that every \mathcalobject that is isomorphic to an \mathcalobject is also an \mathcalobject. This condition is very natural. For example, in the category of topological spaces one usually studies properties that are invariant under homeomorphisms—socalled topological properties In topology and related areas of mathematics, a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space that is invariant under homeomorphisms. Alternatively, a topological property is a proper class of topological space .... Every topological property corresponds ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subcategory
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a subcategory of a category ''C'' is a category ''S'' whose objects are objects in ''C'' and whose morphisms are morphisms in ''C'' with the same identities and composition of morphisms. Intuitively, a subcategory of ''C'' is a category obtained from ''C'' by "removing" some of its objects and arrows. Formal definition Let ''C'' be a category. A subcategory ''S'' of ''C'' is given by *a subcollection of objects of ''C'', denoted ob(''S''), *a subcollection of morphisms of ''C'', denoted hom(''S''). such that *for every ''X'' in ob(''S''), the identity morphism id''X'' is in hom(''S''), *for every morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' in hom(''S''), both the source ''X'' and the target ''Y'' are in ob(''S''), *for every pair of morphisms ''f'' and ''g'' in hom(''S'') the composite ''f'' o ''g'' is in hom(''S'') whenever it is defined. These conditions ensure that ''S'' is a category in its own right: its collection of objects is ob(''S'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category (mathematics)
In mathematics, a category (sometimes called an abstract category to distinguish it from a concrete category) is a collection of "objects" that are linked by "arrows". A category has two basic properties: the ability to compose the arrows associatively and the existence of an identity arrow for each object. A simple example is the category of sets, whose objects are sets and whose arrows are functions. '' Category theory'' is a branch of mathematics that seeks to generalize all of mathematics in terms of categories, independent of what their objects and arrows represent. Virtually every branch of modern mathematics can be described in terms of categories, and doing so often reveals deep insights and similarities between seemingly different areas of mathematics. As such, category theory provides an alternative foundation for mathematics to set theory and other proposed axiomatic foundations. In general, the objects and arrows may be abstract entities of any kind, and th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structurepreserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a univ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Full Subcategory
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a subcategory of a category ''C'' is a category ''S'' whose objects are objects in ''C'' and whose morphisms are morphisms in ''C'' with the same identities and composition of morphisms. Intuitively, a subcategory of ''C'' is a category obtained from ''C'' by "removing" some of its objects and arrows. Formal definition Let ''C'' be a category. A subcategory ''S'' of ''C'' is given by *a subcollection of objects of ''C'', denoted ob(''S''), *a subcollection of morphisms of ''C'', denoted hom(''S''). such that *for every ''X'' in ob(''S''), the identity morphism id''X'' is in hom(''S''), *for every morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' in hom(''S''), both the source ''X'' and the target ''Y'' are in ob(''S''), *for every pair of morphisms ''f'' and ''g'' in hom(''S'') the composite ''f'' o ''g'' is in hom(''S'') whenever it is defined. These conditions ensure that ''S'' is a category in its own right: its collection of objects is ob(''S'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Topological Spaces
In mathematics, the category of topological spaces, often denoted Top, is the category whose objects are topological spaces and whose morphisms are continuous maps. This is a category because the composition of two continuous maps is again continuous, and the identity function is continuous. The study of Top and of properties of topological spaces using the techniques of category theory is known as categorical topology. N.B. Some authors use the name Top for the categories with topological manifolds, with compactly generated spaces as objects and continuous maps as morphisms or with the category of compactly generated weak Hausdorff spaces. As a concrete category Like many categories, the category Top is a concrete category, meaning its objects are sets with additional structure (i.e. topologies) and its morphisms are functions preserving this structure. There is a natural forgetful functor :''U'' : Top → Set to the category of sets which assigns to each topological spac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homeomorphism
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word ''homeomorphism'' comes from the Greek words '' ὅμοιος'' (''homoios'') = similar or same and '' μορφή'' (''morphē'') = shape or form, introduced to mathematics by Henri Poincaré in 1895. Very roughly speaking, a topological space is a geometric object, and the homeomorphism is a continuous stretching and bending of the object into a new shape. Thus, a square and a circle are homeomorphic to each other, but a sphere and a torus are not. However, this desc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Property
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a topological property or topological invariant is a property of a topological space that is invariant under homeomorphisms. Alternatively, a topological property is a proper class of topological spaces which is closed under homeomorphisms. That is, a property of spaces is a topological property if whenever a space ''X'' possesses that property every space homeomorphic to ''X'' possesses that property. Informally, a topological property is a property of the space that can be expressed using open sets. A common problem in topology is to decide whether two topological spaces are homeomorphic or not. To prove that two spaces are ''not'' homeomorphic, it is sufficient to find a topological property which is not shared by them. Properties of topological properties A property P is: * Hereditary, if for every topological space (X, \mathcal) and X' \subset X, the subspace (X', \mathcal, X') has property P. * Weakly hereditary, if for ever ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 