Invertible Matrix
In linear algebra, an by square matrix is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate), if there exists an by square matrix such that :\mathbf = \mathbf = \mathbf_n \ where denotes the by identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication. If this is the case, then the matrix is uniquely determined by , and is called the (multiplicative) ''inverse'' of , denoted by . Matrix inversion is the process of finding the matrix that satisfies the prior equation for a given invertible matrix . A square matrix that is ''not'' invertible is called singular or degenerate. A square matrix is singular if and only if its determinant is zero. Singular matrices are rare in the sense that if a square matrix's entries are randomly selected from any finite region on the number line or complex plane, the probability that the matrix is singular is 0, that is, it will "almost never" be singular. Nonsquare matrices (by matrices for which ) do not hav ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and fields of engineering, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and computing efficiently with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, it is often used for dealing with firstorder approximations, using the fact that the differential of a multivariate function at a point is the linear ma ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the rank of a matrix is the dimension of the vector space generated (or spanned) by its columns. p. 48, § 1.16 This corresponds to the maximal number of linearly independent columns of . This, in turn, is identical to the dimension of the vector space spanned by its rows. Rank is thus a measure of the " nondegenerateness" of the system of linear equations and linear transformation encoded by . There are multiple equivalent definitions of rank. A matrix's rank is one of its most fundamental characteristics. The rank is commonly denoted by or ; sometimes the parentheses are not written, as in .Alternative notation includes \rho (\Phi) from and . Main definitions In this section, we give some definitions of the rank of a matrix. Many definitions are possible; see Alternative definitions for several of these. The column rank of is the dimension of the column space of , while the row rank of is the dimension of the row space of . A fundamental result in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthonormal
In linear algebra, two vectors in an inner product space are orthonormal if they are orthogonal (or perpendicular along a line) unit vectors. A set of vectors form an orthonormal set if all vectors in the set are mutually orthogonal and all of unit length. An orthonormal set which forms a basis is called an orthonormal basis. Intuitive overview The construction of orthogonality of vectors is motivated by a desire to extend the intuitive notion of perpendicular vectors to higherdimensional spaces. In the Cartesian plane, two vectors are said to be ''perpendicular'' if the angle between them is 90° (i.e. if they form a right angle). This definition can be formalized in Cartesian space by defining the dot product and specifying that two vectors in the plane are orthogonal if their dot product is zero. Similarly, the construction of the norm of a vector is motivated by a desire to extend the intuitive notion of the length of a vector to higherdimensional spaces. In Cartesian ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Moore–Penrose Inverse
In mathematics, and in particular linear algebra, the Moore–Penrose inverse of a matrix is the most widely known generalization of the inverse matrix. It was independently described by E. H. Moore in 1920, Arne Bjerhammar in 1951, and Roger Penrose in 1955. Earlier, Erik Ivar Fredholm had introduced the concept of a pseudoinverse of integral operators in 1903. When referring to a matrix, the term pseudoinverse, without further specification, is often used to indicate the Moore–Penrose inverse. The term generalized inverse is sometimes used as a synonym for pseudoinverse. A common use of the pseudoinverse is to compute a "best fit" ( least squares) solution to a system of linear equations that lacks a solution (see below under § Applications). Another use is to find the minimum ( Euclidean) norm solution to a system of linear equations with multiple solutions. The pseudoinverse facilitates the statement and proof of results in linear algebra. The pseudoinverse is defined a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 