Intuitionistic Type Theory
Intuitionistic type theory (also known as constructive type theory, or MartinLöf type theory) is a type theory and an alternative foundation of mathematics. Intuitionistic type theory was created by Per MartinLöf, a Swedish mathematician and philosopher, who first published it in 1972. There are multiple versions of the type theory: MartinLöf proposed both intensional and extensional variants of the theory and early impredicative versions, shown to be inconsistent by Girard's paradox, gave way to predicative versions. However, all versions keep the core design of constructive logic using dependent types. Design MartinLöf designed the type theory on the principles of mathematical constructivism. Constructivism requires any existence proof to contain a "witness". So, any proof of "there exists a prime greater than 1000" must identify a specific number that is both prime and greater than 1000. Intuitionistic type theory accomplished this design goal by internalizi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Type Theory
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is the formal presentation of a specific type system, and in general type theory is the academic study of type systems. Some type theories serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation of mathematics. Two influential type theories that were proposed as foundations are Alonzo Church's typed λcalculus and Per MartinLöf's intuitionistic type theory. Most computerized proofwriting systems use a type theory for their foundation. A common one is Thierry Coquand's Calculus of Inductive Constructions. History Type theory was created to avoid a paradox in a mathematical foundation based on naive set theory and formal logic. Russell's paradox, which was discovered by Bertrand Russell, existed because a set could be defined using "all possible sets", which included itself. Between 1902 and 1908, Bertrand Russell proposed various "theories of type" to fix the problem. By 1908 Russell arrived at a "ramified" ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Type Theory
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is the formal presentation of a specific type system, and in general type theory is the academic study of type systems. Some type theories serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation of mathematics. Two influential type theories that were proposed as foundations are Alonzo Church's typed λcalculus and Per MartinLöf's intuitionistic type theory. Most computerized proofwriting systems use a type theory for their foundation. A common one is Thierry Coquand's Calculus of Inductive Constructions. History Type theory was created to avoid a paradox in a mathematical foundation based on naive set theory and formal logic. Russell's paradox, which was discovered by Bertrand Russell, existed because a set could be defined using "all possible sets", which included itself. Between 1902 and 1908, Bertrand Russell proposed various "theories of type" to fix the problem. By 1908 Russell arrived at a "ramified" ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Proof Theory
Proof theory is a major branchAccording to Wang (1981), pp. 3–4, proof theory is one of four domains mathematical logic, together with model theory, axiomatic set theory, and recursion theory. Barwise (1978) consists of four corresponding parts, with part D being about "Proof Theory and Constructive Mathematics". of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. Proofs are typically presented as inductivelydefined data structures such as lists, boxed lists, or trees, which are constructed according to the axioms and rules of inference of the logical system. Consequently, proof theory is syntactic in nature, in contrast to model theory, which is semantic in nature. Some of the major areas of proof theory include structural proof theory, ordinal analysis, provability logic, reverse mathematics, proof mining, automated theorem proving, and proof complexity. Much research also focuses ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Reflexive Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation ''R'' on a set ''X'' is reflexive if it relates every element of ''X'' to itself. An example of a reflexive relation is the relation " is equal to" on the set of real numbers, since every real number is equal to itself. A reflexive relation is said to have the reflexive property or is said to possess reflexivity. Along with symmetry and transitivity, reflexivity is one of three properties defining equivalence relations. Definitions Let R be a binary relation on a set X, which by definition is just a subset of X \times X. For any x, y \in X, the notation x R y means that (x, y) \in R while "not x R y" means that (x, y) \not\in R. The relation R is called if x R x for every x \in X or equivalently, if \operatorname_X \subseteq R where \operatorname_X := \ denotes the identity relation on X. The of R is the union R \cup \operatorname_X, which can equivalently be defined as the smallest (with respect to \subseteq) reflexive relation o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universal Quantification
In mathematical logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all". It expresses that a predicate can be satisfied by every member of a domain of discourse. In other words, it is the predication of a property or relation to every member of the domain. It asserts that a predicate within the scope of a universal quantifier is true of every value of a predicate variable. It is usually denoted by the turned A (∀) logical operator symbol, which, when used together with a predicate variable, is called a universal quantifier ("", "", or sometimes by "" alone). Universal quantification is distinct from ''existential'' quantification ("there exists"), which only asserts that the property or relation holds for at least one member of the domain. Quantification in general is covered in the article on quantification (logic). The universal quantifier is encoded as in Unicode, and as \forall in LaTeX ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Existential Quantifier
In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some". It is usually denoted by the logical operator symbol ∃, which, when used together with a predicate variable, is called an existential quantifier ("" or "" or "). Existential quantification is distinct from universal quantification ("for all"), which asserts that the property or relation holds for ''all'' members of the domain. Some sources use the term existentialization to refer to existential quantification. Basics Consider a formula that states that some natural number multiplied by itself is 25. : 0·0 = 25, or 1·1 = 25, or 2·2 = 25, or 3·3 = 25, ... This would seem to be a logical disjunction because of the repeated use of "or". However, the ellipses make this impossible to integrate and to interpret it as a disjunction in formal logic. Instead, the statement could be rephrased more formally as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Record (computer Science)
In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure. Records in a database or spreadsheet are usually called " rows". A record is a collection of ''fields'', possibly of different data types, typically in a fixed number and sequence. The fields of a record may also be called ''members'', particularly in objectoriented programming; fields may also be called ''elements'', though this risks confusion with the elements of a collection. For example, a date could be stored as a record containing a numeric year field, a month field represented as a string, and a numeric dayofmonth field. A personnel record might contain a name, a salary, and a rank. A Circle record might contain a center and a radius—in this instance, the center itself might be represented as a point record containing x and y coordinates. Records are distinguished from arrays by the fact that their number of fields is determined in the definition of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tuple
In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements. An tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of elements, where is a nonnegative integer. There is only one 0tuple, referred to as ''the empty tuple''. An tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Mathematicians usually write tuples by listing the elements within parentheses "" and separated by a comma and a space; for example, denotes a 5tuple. Sometimes other symbols are used to surround the elements, such as square brackets " nbsp; or angle brackets "⟨ ⟩". Braces "" are used to specify arrays in some programming languages but not in mathematical expressions, as they are the standard notation for sets. The term ''tuple'' can often occur when discussing other mathematical objects, such as vectors. In computer science, tuples come in many forms. Most typed functional programming languages implement tuples directly as product types, tightly associated with ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Union
In mathematics, a disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets (A_i : i\in I) is a set A, often denoted by \bigsqcup_ A_i, with an injection of each A_i into A, such that the images of these injections form a partition of A (that is, each element of A belongs to exactly one of these images). A disjoint union of a family of pairwise disjoint sets is their union. In category theory, the disjoint union is the coproduct of the category of sets, and thus defined up to a bijection. In this context, the notation \coprod_ A_i is often used. The disjoint union of two sets A and B is written with infix notation as A \sqcup B. Some authors use the alternative notation A \uplus B or A \operatorname B (along with the corresponding \biguplus_ A_i or \operatorname_ A_i). A standard way for building the disjoint union is to define A as the set of ordered pairs (x, i) such that x \in A_i, and the injection A_i \to A as x \mapsto (x, i). Example Consider the sets A_0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartesian Product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of setbuilder notation, that is : A\times B = \. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form . One can similarly define the Cartesian product of ''n'' sets, also known as an ''n''fold Cartesian product, which can be represented by an ''n''dimensional array, where each element is an ''n'' tuple. An ordered pair is a 2tuple or couple. More generally still, one can define the Cartesian product of an indexed family of sets. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, which is further generalized in terms of direct product. Examples A deck of cards A ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Law Of Excluded Middle
In logic, the law of excluded middle (or the principle of excluded middle) states that for every proposition, either this proposition or its negation is true. It is one of the socalled three laws of thought, along with the law of noncontradiction, and the law of identity. However, no system of logic is built on just these laws, and none of these laws provides inference rules, such as modus ponens or De Morgan's laws. The law is also known as the law (or principle) of the excluded third, in Latin ''principium tertii exclusi''. Another Latin designation for this law is ''tertium non datur'': "no third ossibilityis given". It is a tautology. The principle should not be confused with the semantical principle of bivalence, which states that every proposition is either true or false. The principle of bivalence always implies the law of excluded middle, while the converse is not always true. A commonly cited counterexample uses statements unprovable now, but provable in the fut ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Algebra
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is a branch of algebra. It differs from elementary algebra in two ways. First, the values of the variables are the truth values ''true'' and ''false'', usually denoted 1 and 0, whereas in elementary algebra the values of the variables are numbers. Second, Boolean algebra uses logical operators such as conjunction (''and'') denoted as ∧, disjunction (''or'') denoted as ∨, and the negation (''not'') denoted as ¬. Elementary algebra, on the other hand, uses arithmetic operators such as addition, multiplication, subtraction and division. So Boolean algebra is a formal way of describing logical operations, in the same way that elementary algebra describes numerical operations. Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole in his first book ''The Mathematical Analysis of Logic'' (1847), and set forth more fully in his '' An Investigation of the Laws of Thought'' (1854). According to Huntington, the term "Boolean algebr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 