Index Set
In mathematics, an index set is a set whose members label (or index) members of another set. For instance, if the elements of a set may be ''indexed'' or ''labeled'' by means of the elements of a set , then is an index set. The indexing consists of a surjective function from onto , and the indexed collection is typically called an '' (indexed) family'', often written as . Examples *An enumeration of a set gives an index set J \sub \N, where is the particular enumeration of . *Any countably infinite set can be (injectively) indexed by the set of natural numbers \N. *For r \in \R, the indicator function on is the function \mathbf_r\colon \R \to \ given by \mathbf_r (x) := \begin 0, & \mbox x \ne r \\ 1, & \mbox x = r. \end The set of all such indicator functions, \_ , is an uncountable set indexed by \mathbb. Other uses In computational complexity theory and cryptography, an index set is a set for which there exists an algorithm that can sample the set efficiently; e. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indexed Set
In mathematics, a family, or indexed family, is informally a collection of objects, each associated with an index from some index set. For example, a ''family of real numbers, indexed by the set of integers'' is a collection of real numbers, where a given function selects one real number for each integer (possibly the same). More formally, an indexed family is a mathematical function together with its domain I and image X. (that is, indexed families and mathematical functions are technically identical, just point of views are different.) Often the elements of the set X are referred to as making up the family. In this view, indexed families are interpreted as collections of indexed elements instead of functions. The set I is called the ''index set'' of the family, and X is the ''indexed set''. Sequences are one type of families indexed by natural numbers. In general, the index set I is not restricted to be countable. For example, one could consider an uncountable family of subset ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Basis
Basis may refer to: Finance and accounting *Adjusted basis, the net cost of an asset after adjusting for various taxrelated items *Basis point, 0.01%, often used in the context of interest rates *Basis trading, a trading strategy consisting of the purchase of a security and the sale of a similar security **Basis of futures, the value differential between a future and the spot price **Basis (options), the value differential between a call option and a put option **Basis swap, an interest rate swap *Cost basis, in income tax law, the original cost of property adjusted for factors such as depreciation *Tax basis, cost of an asset and technology *Basis function *Basis (linear algebra) **Dual basis **Orthonormal basis **Schauder basis *Basis (universal algebra) *Basis of a matroid *Generating set of an ideal: **Gröbner basis ** Hilbert's basis theorem *Generating set of a group *Base (topology) *Change of basis *Greedoid *Normal basis *Polynomial basis *Radial basis function *Sta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indexed Family
In mathematics, a family, or indexed family, is informally a collection of objects, each associated with an index from some index set. For example, a ''family of real numbers, indexed by the set of integers'' is a collection of real numbers, where a given function selects one real number for each integer (possibly the same). More formally, an indexed family is a mathematical function together with its domain I and image X. (that is, indexed families and mathematical functions are technically identical, just point of views are different.) Often the elements of the set X are referred to as making up the family. In this view, indexed families are interpreted as collections of indexed elements instead of functions. The set I is called the ''index set'' of the family, and X is the ''indexed set''. Sequences are one type of families indexed by natural numbers. In general, the index set I is not restricted to be countable. For example, one could consider an uncountable family of sub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Friendlyindex Set
In graph theory, a friendlyindex set is a finite set of integers associated with a given undirected graph and generated by a type of graph labeling called a friendly labeling. A friendly labeling of an vertex undirected graph is defined to be an assignment of the values 0 and 1 to the vertices of with the property that the number of vertices labeled 0 is as close as possible to the number of vertices labeled 1: they should either be equal (for graphs with an even number of vertices) or differ by one (for graphs with an odd number of vertices). Given a friendly labeling of the vertices of , one may also label the edges: a given edge is labeled with a 0 if its endpoints and have equal labels, and it is labeled with a 1 if its endpoints have different labels. The friendly index of the labeling is the absolute value In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number x, is the nonnegative value without regard to its sign. Namely, , x, =x if is a positive nu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cryptography
Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''logia'', "study", respectively), is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversarial behavior. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, information security, electrical engineering, digital signal processing, physics, and others. Core concepts related to information security ( data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation) are also central to cryptography. Practical applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chipbased payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications. Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computational Complexity Theory
In theoretical computer science and mathematics, computational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problems according to their resource usage, and relating these classes to each other. A computational problem is a task solved by a computer. A computation problem is solvable by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an algorithm. A problem is regarded as inherently difficult if its solution requires significant resources, whatever the algorithm used. The theory formalizes this intuition, by introducing mathematical models of computation to study these problems and quantifying their computational complexity, i.e., the amount of resources needed to solve them, such as time and storage. Other measures of complexity are also used, such as the amount of communication (used in communication complexity), the number of gates in a circuit (used in circuit complexity) and the number of processors (used in parallel computing). One of the roles of computationa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uncountable Set
In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable. The uncountability of a set is closely related to its cardinal number: a set is uncountable if its cardinal number is larger than that of the set of all natural numbers. Characterizations There are many equivalent characterizations of uncountability. A set ''X'' is uncountable if and only if any of the following conditions hold: * There is no injective function (hence no bijection) from ''X'' to the set of natural numbers. * ''X'' is nonempty and for every ωsequence of elements of ''X'', there exists at least one element of X not included in it. That is, ''X'' is nonempty and there is no surjective function from the natural numbers to ''X''. * The cardinality of ''X'' is neither finite nor equal to \aleph_0 (alephnull, the cardinality of the natural numbers). * The set ''X'' has cardinality strictly greater than \aleph_0. The first three ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called '' scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear eq ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indicator Function
In mathematics, an indicator function or a characteristic function of a subset of a set is a function that maps elements of the subset to one, and all other elements to zero. That is, if is a subset of some set , one has \mathbf_(x)=1 if x\in A, and \mathbf_(x)=0 otherwise, where \mathbf_A is a common notation for the indicator function. Other common notations are I_A, and \chi_A. The indicator function of is the Iverson bracket of the property of belonging to ; that is, :\mathbf_(x)= \in A For example, the Dirichlet function is the indicator function of the rational numbers as a subset of the real numbers. Definition The indicator function of a subset of a set is a function \mathbf_A \colon X \to \ defined as \mathbf_A(x) := \begin 1 ~&\text~ x \in A~, \\ 0 ~&\text~ x \notin A~. \end The Iverson bracket provides the equivalent notation, \in A/math> or to be used instead of \mathbf_(x)\,. The function \mathbf_A is sometimes denoted , , , or even just . Nota ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Index Set (recursion Theory)
Index (or its plural form indices) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional entities * Index (''A Certain Magical Index''), a character in the light novel series ''A Certain Magical Index'' * The Index, an item on a Halo megastructure in the ''Halo'' series of video games Periodicals and news portals * ''Index Magazine'', a publication for art and culture * Index.hr, a Croatian online newspaper * index.hu, a Hungarianlanguage news and community portal * ''The Index'' (Kalamazoo College), a student newspaper * ''The Index'', an 1860s European propaganda journal created by Henry Hotze to support the Confederate States of America * ''Truman State University Index'', a student newspaper Other arts, entertainment and media * The Index (band) * ''Indexed'', a Web cartoon by Jessica Hagy * ''Index'', album by Ana Mena Business enterprises and events * Index (retailer), a former UK catalogue retailer * INDEX, a market research fair in Lucknow, India * Index Corporat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Numbers
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called ''cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called ''ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as ''nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by success ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countably Infinite
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite com ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 