Homogeneous Function
In mathematics, a homogeneous function is a function of several variables such that, if all its arguments are multiplied by a scalar, then its value is multiplied by some power of this scalar, called the degree of homogeneity, or simply the ''degree''; that is, if is an integer, a function of variables is homogeneous of degree if :f(sx_1,\ldots, sx_n)=s^k f(x_1,\ldots, x_n) for every x_1, \ldots, x_n, and s\ne 0. For example, a homogeneous polynomial of degree defines a homogeneous function of degree . The above definition extends to functions whose domain and codomain are vector spaces over a field : a function f : V \to W between two vector spaces is ''homogeneous'' of degree k if for all nonzero s \in F and v \in V. This definition is often further generalized to functions whose domain is not , but a cone in , that is, a subset of such that \mathbf\in C implies s\mathbf\in C for every nonzero scalar . In the case of functions of several real variables and real vecto ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Differentiable Function
In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain. In other words, the graph of a differentiable function has a nonvertical tangent line at each interior point in its domain. A differentiable function is smooth (the function is locally well approximated as a linear function at each interior point) and does not contain any break, angle, or cusp. If is an interior point in the domain of a function , then is said to be ''differentiable at'' if the derivative f'(x_0) exists. In other words, the graph of has a nonvertical tangent line at the point . is said to be differentiable on if it is differentiable at every point of . is said to be ''continuously differentiable'' if its derivative is also a continuous function over the domain of the function f. Generally speaking, is said to be of class if its first k derivatives f^(x), f^(x), \ldots, f^(x) exist and are continuous over the domain of the func ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euler's Theorem
In number theory, Euler's theorem (also known as the Fermat–Euler theorem or Euler's totient theorem) states that, if and are coprime positive integers, and \varphi(n) is Euler's totient function, then raised to the power \varphi(n) is congruent to modulo ; that is :a^ \equiv 1 \pmod. In 1736, Leonhard Euler published a proof of Fermat's little theorem (stated by Fermat without proof), which is the restriction of Euler's theorem to the case where is a prime number. Subsequently, Euler presented other proofs of the theorem, culminating with his paper of 1763, in which he proved a generalization to the case where is not prime. The converse of Euler's theorem is also true: if the above congruence is true, then a and n must be coprime. The theorem is further generalized by Carmichael's theorem. The theorem may be used to easily reduce large powers modulo n. For example, consider finding the ones place decimal digit of 7^, i.e. 7^ \pmod. The integers 7 and 10 are coprime, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Exponentiation
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as , involving two numbers, the '' base'' and the ''exponent'' or ''power'' , and pronounced as " (raised) to the (power of) ". When is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, is the product of multiplying bases: b^n = \underbrace_. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, is called "''b'' raised to the ''n''th power", "''b'' (raised) to the power of ''n''", "the ''n''th power of ''b''", "''b'' to the ''n''th power", or most briefly as "''b'' to the ''n''th". Starting from the basic fact stated above that, for any positive integer n, b^n is n occurrences of b all multiplied by each other, several other properties of exponentiation directly follow. In particular: \begin b^ & = \underbrace_ \\[1ex] & = \underbrace_ \times \underbrace_ \\[1ex] & = b^n \times b^m \end In other words, when multiplying a base raised to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Proj Construction
In algebraic geometry, Proj is a construction analogous to the spectrumofaring construction of affine schemes, which produces objects with the typical properties of projective spaces and projective varieties. The construction, while not functorial, is a fundamental tool in scheme theory. In this article, all rings will be assumed to be commutative and with identity. Proj of a graded ring Proj as a set Let S be a graded ring, whereS = \bigoplus_ S_iis the direct sum decomposition associated with the gradation. The irrelevant ideal of S is the ideal of elements of positive degreeS_+ = \bigoplus_ S_i .We say an ideal is homogeneous if it is generated by homogeneous elements. Then, as a set,\operatorname S = \. For brevity we will sometimes write X for \operatorname S. Proj as a topological space We may define a topology, called the Zariski topology, on \operatorname S by defining the closed sets to be those of the form :V(a) = \, where a is a homogeneous ideal of S. As in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projectivization
In mathematics, projectivization is a procedure which associates with a nonzero vector space ''V'' a projective space (V), whose elements are onedimensional subspaces of ''V''. More generally, any subset ''S'' of ''V'' closed under scalar multiplication defines a subset of (V) formed by the lines contained in ''S'' and is called the projectivization of ''S''. Properties * Projectivization is a special case of the factorization by a group action: the projective space (V) is the quotient of the open set ''V''\ of nonzero vectors by the action of the multiplicative group of the base field by scalar transformations. The dimension of (V) in the sense of algebraic geometry is one less than the dimension of the vector space ''V''. * Projectivization is functorial with respect to injective linear maps: if :: f: V\to W : is a linear map with trivial kernel then ''f'' defines an algebraic map of the corresponding projective spaces, :: \mathbb(f): \mathbb(V)\to \mathbb(W). : In pa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projective Geometry
In mathematics, projective geometry is the study of geometric properties that are invariant with respect to projective transformations. This means that, compared to elementary Euclidean geometry, projective geometry has a different setting, projective space, and a selective set of basic geometric concepts. The basic intuitions are that projective space has more points than Euclidean space, for a given dimension, and that geometric transformations are permitted that transform the extra points (called "points at infinity") to Euclidean points, and viceversa. Properties meaningful for projective geometry are respected by this new idea of transformation, which is more radical in its effects than can be expressed by a transformation matrix and translations (the affine transformations). The first issue for geometers is what kind of geometry is adequate for a novel situation. It is not possible to refer to angles in projective geometry as it is in Euclidean geometry, because angle is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Function
In mathematics, a rational function is any function that can be defined by a rational fraction, which is an algebraic fraction such that both the numerator and the denominator are polynomials. The coefficients of the polynomials need not be rational numbers; they may be taken in any field ''K''. In this case, one speaks of a rational function and a rational fraction ''over K''. The values of the variables may be taken in any field ''L'' containing ''K''. Then the domain of the function is the set of the values of the variables for which the denominator is not zero, and the codomain is ''L''. The set of rational functions over a field ''K'' is a field, the field of fractions of the ring of the polynomial functions over ''K''. Definitions A function f(x) is called a rational function if and only if it can be written in the form : f(x) = \frac where P\, and Q\, are polynomial functions of x\, and Q\, is not the zero function. The domain of f\, is the set of all values of x\ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partial Function
In mathematics, a partial function from a set to a set is a function from a subset of (possibly itself) to . The subset , that is, the domain of viewed as a function, is called the domain of definition of . If equals , that is, if is defined on every element in , then is said to be total. More technically, a partial function is a binary relation over two sets that associates every element of the first set to ''at most'' one element of the second set; it is thus a functional binary relation. It generalizes the concept of a (total) function by not requiring every element of the first set to be associated to ''exactly'' one element of the second set. A partial function is often used when its exact domain of definition is not known or difficult to specify. This is the case in calculus, where, for example, the quotient of two functions is a partial function whose domain of definition cannot contain the zeros of the denominator. For this reason, in calculus, and more gene ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 