Greatest Common Divisor
In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers. For two integers ''x'', ''y'', the greatest common divisor of ''x'' and ''y'' is denoted \gcd (x,y). For example, the GCD of 8 and 12 is 4, that is, \gcd (8, 12) = 4. In the name "greatest common divisor", the adjective "greatest" may be replaced by "highest", and the word "divisor" may be replaced by "factor", so that other names include highest common factor (hcf), etc. Historically, other names for the same concept have included greatest common measure. This notion can be extended to polynomials (see Polynomial greatest common divisor) and other commutative rings (see below). Overview Definition The ''greatest common divisor'' (GCD) of two nonzero integers and is the greatest positive integer such that is a divisor of both and ; that is, there are integers and such that and , and is the largest s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Preorder
In mathematics, especially in order theory, a preorder or quasiorder is a binary relation that is reflexive and transitive. Preorders are more general than equivalence relations and (nonstrict) partial orders, both of which are special cases of a preorder: an antisymmetric (or skeletal) preorder is a partial order, and a symmetric preorder is an equivalence relation. The name comes from the idea that preorders (that are not partial orders) are 'almost' (partial) orders, but not quite; they are neither necessarily antisymmetric nor asymmetric. Because a preorder is a binary relation, the symbol \,\leq\, can be used as the notational device for the relation. However, because they are not necessarily antisymmetric, some of the ordinary intuition associated to the symbol \,\leq\, may not apply. On the other hand, a preorder can be used, in a straightforward fashion, to define a partial order and an equivalence relation. Doing so, however, is not always useful or worth ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclid
Euclid (; grcgre, Wikt:Εὐκλείδης, Εὐκλείδης; BC) was an ancient Greek mathematician active as a geometer and logician. Considered the "father of geometry", he is chiefly known for the ''Euclid's Elements, Elements'' treatise, which established the foundations of geometry that largely dominated the field until the early 19th century. His system, now referred to as Euclidean geometry, involved new innovations in combination with a synthesis of theories from earlier Greek mathematicians, including Eudoxus of Cnidus, Hippocrates of Chios, Thales and Theaetetus (mathematician), Theaetetus. With Archimedes and Apollonius of Perga, Euclid is generally considered among the greatest mathematicians of antiquity, and one of the most influential in the history of mathematics. Very little is known of Euclid's life, and most information comes from the philosophers Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria many centuries later. Until the early Renaissance he was often mistaken f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wolfram Demonstrations Project
The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, opensource collection of small (or mediumsize) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields. It is hosted by Wolfram Research, whose stated goal is to bring computational exploration to a large population. At its launch, it contained 1300 demonstrations but has grown to over 10,000. The site won a Parents' Choice Award in 2008. Technology The Demonstrations run in '' Mathematica'' 6 or above and in '' Wolfram CDF Player'' which is a free modified version of Wolfram's ''Mathematica'' and available for Windows, Linux and macOS and can operate as a web browser plugin. They typically consist of a very direct user interface to a graphic or visualization, which dynamically recomputes in response to user actions such as moving a slider, clicking a button, or dragging a piece of graphics. Each Demonstration also has a brief description of the c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Least Common Multiple
In arithmetic and number theory, the least common multiple, lowest common multiple, or smallest common multiple of two integers ''a'' and ''b'', usually denoted by lcm(''a'', ''b''), is the smallest positive integer that is divisible by both ''a'' and ''b''. Since division of integers by zero is undefined, this definition has meaning only if ''a'' and ''b'' are both different from zero. However, some authors define lcm(''a'',0) as 0 for all ''a'', since 0 is the only common multiple of ''a'' and 0. The lcm is the "lowest common denominator" (lcd) that can be used before fractions can be added, subtracted or compared. The least common multiple of more than two integers ''a'', ''b'', ''c'', . . . , usually denoted by lcm(''a'', ''b'', ''c'', . . .), is also well defined: It is the smallest positive integer that is divisible by each of ''a'', ''b'', ''c'', . . . Overview A multiple of a number is the product of that number and an integer. For example, 10 is a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Venn Diagram
A Venn diagram is a widely used diagram style that shows the logical relation between set (mathematics), sets, popularized by John Venn (1834–1923) in the 1880s. The diagrams are used to teach elementary set theory, and to illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science. A Venn diagram uses simple closed curves drawn on a plane to represent sets. Very often, these curves are circles or ellipses. Similar ideas had been proposed before Venn. Christian Weise in 1712 (''Nucleus Logicoe Wiesianoe'') and Leonhard Euler (''Letters to a German Princess'') in 1768, for instance, came up with similar ideas. The idea was popularised by Venn in ''Symbolic Logic'', Chapter V "Diagrammatic Representation", 1881. Details A Venn diagram may also be called a ''set diagram'' or ''logic diagram''. It is a diagram that shows ''all'' possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets. These diagrams depict element ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Factorization
In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers. If these factors are further restricted to prime numbers, the process is called prime factorization. When the numbers are sufficiently large, no efficient nonquantum integer factorization algorithm is known. However, it has not been proven that such an algorithm does not exist. The presumed difficulty of this problem is important for the algorithms used in cryptography such as RSA publickey encryption and the RSA digital signature. Many areas of mathematics and computer science have been brought to bear on the problem, including elliptic curves, algebraic number theory, and quantum computing. In 2019, Fabrice Boudot, Pierrick Gaudry, Aurore Guillevic, Nadia Heninger, Emmanuel Thomé and Paul Zimmermann factored a 240digit (795bit) number (RSA240) utilizing approximately 900 coreyears of computing power. The researchers estimated that a 1024bit RSA mod ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fundamental Theorem Of Arithmetic
In mathematics, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem and prime factorization theorem, states that every integer greater than 1 can be represented uniquely as a product of prime numbers, up to the order of the factors. For example, : 1200 = 2^4 \cdot 3^1 \cdot 5^2 = (2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2) \cdot 3 \cdot (5 \cdot 5) = 5 \cdot 2 \cdot 5 \cdot 2 \cdot 3 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 = \ldots The theorem says two things about this example: first, that 1200 be represented as a product of primes, and second, that no matter how this is done, there will always be exactly four 2s, one 3, two 5s, and no other primes in the product. The requirement that the factors be prime is necessary: factorizations containing composite numbers may not be unique (for example, 12 = 2 \cdot 6 = 3 \cdot 4). This theorem is one of the main reasons why 1 is not considered a prime number: if 1 were prime, then factorization into primes would not be unique; for example, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Irreducible Fraction
An irreducible fraction (or fraction in lowest terms, simplest form or reduced fraction) is a fraction in which the numerator and denominator are integers that have no other common divisors than 1 (and −1, when negative numbers are considered). In other words, a fraction is irreducible if and only if ''a'' and ''b'' are coprime, that is, if ''a'' and ''b'' have a greatest common divisor of 1. In higher mathematics, "irreducible fraction" may also refer to rational fractions such that the numerator and the denominator are coprime polynomials. Every positive rational number can be represented as an irreducible fraction in exactly one way.. An equivalent definition is sometimes useful: if ''a'' and ''b'' are integers, then the fraction is irreducible if and only if there is no other equal fraction such that or , where means the absolute value of ''a''. (Two fractions and are ''equal'' or ''equivalent'' if and only if ''ad'' = ''bc''.) For example, , , and are a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fraction
A fraction (from la, fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, onehalf, eightfifths, threequarters. A ''common'', ''vulgar'', or ''simple'' fraction (examples: \tfrac and \tfrac) consists of a numerator, displayed above a line (or before a slash like ), and a nonzero denominator, displayed below (or after) that line. Numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not ''common'', including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. In positive common fractions, the numerator and denominator are natural numbers. The numerator represents a number of equal parts, and the denominator indicates how many of those parts make up a unit or a whole. The denominator cannot be zero, because zero parts can never make up a whole. For example, in the fraction , the numerator 3 indicates that the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

24x60
4x6 (fourbysix) may refer as: *A common photo print size *A common term for vehicles with " 4 wheel drive", but have 6 wheels total, like for instance the semi tractors used to tow their trailers. {{LetterNumberCombDisambig ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coprime
In mathematics, two integers and are coprime, relatively prime or mutually prime if the only positive integer that is a divisor of both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides does not divide , and vice versa. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor (GCD) being 1. One says also '' is prime to '' or '' is coprime with ''. The numbers 8 and 9 are coprime, despite the fact that neither considered individually is a prime number, since 1 is their only common divisor. On the other hand, 6 and 9 are not coprime, because they are both divisible by 3. The numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are coprime, by definition. Notation and testing Standard notations for relatively prime integers and are: and . In their 1989 textbook ''Concrete Mathematics'', Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth, and Oren Patashnik proposed that the notation a\perp b be used to indicate that and are relatively prime and that the term "prime" be used instead of coprime (as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 