Fundamental Theorem Of Arithmetic
In mathematics, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, also called the unique factorization theorem and prime factorization theorem, states that every integer greater than 1 can be represented uniquely as a product of prime numbers, up to the order of the factors. For example, : 1200 = 2^4 \cdot 3^1 \cdot 5^2 = (2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 \cdot 2) \cdot 3 \cdot (5 \cdot 5) = 5 \cdot 2 \cdot 5 \cdot 2 \cdot 3 \cdot 2 \cdot 2 = \ldots The theorem says two things about this example: first, that 1200 be represented as a product of primes, and second, that no matter how this is done, there will always be exactly four 2s, one 3, two 5s, and no other primes in the product. The requirement that the factors be prime is necessary: factorizations containing composite numbers may not be unique (for example, 12 = 2 \cdot 6 = 3 \cdot 4). This theorem is one of the main reasons why 1 is not considered a prime number: if 1 were prime, then factorization into primes would not be unique; for example, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

André Weil
André Weil (; ; 6 May 1906 – 6 August 1998) was a French mathematician, known for his foundational work in number theory and algebraic geometry. He was a founding member and the ''de facto'' early leader of the mathematical Bourbaki group. The philosopher Simone Weil was his sister. The writer Sylvie Weil is his daughter. Life André Weil was born in Paris to agnostic Alsatian Jewish parents who fled the annexation of AlsaceLorraine by the German Empire after the FrancoPrussian War in 1870–71. Simone Weil, who would later become a famous philosopher, was Weil's younger sister and only sibling. He studied in Paris, Rome and Göttingen and received his doctorate in 1928. While in Germany, Weil befriended Carl Ludwig Siegel. Starting in 1930, he spent two academic years at Aligarh Muslim University in India. Aside from mathematics, Weil held lifelong interests in classical Greek and Latin literature, in Hinduism and Sanskrit literature: he had taught himself Sanskrit in 1 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Strong Induction
Mathematical induction is a method for proving that a statement ''P''(''n'') is true for every natural number ''n'', that is, that the infinitely many cases ''P''(0), ''P''(1), ''P''(2), ''P''(3), ... all hold. Informal metaphors help to explain this technique, such as falling dominoes or climbing a ladder: A proof by induction consists of two cases. The first, the base case, proves the statement for ''n'' = 0 without assuming any knowledge of other cases. The second case, the induction step, proves that ''if'' the statement holds for any given case ''n'' = ''k'', ''then'' it must also hold for the next case ''n'' = ''k'' + 1. These two steps establish that the statement holds for every natural number ''n''. The base case does not necessarily begin with ''n'' = 0, but often with ''n'' = 1, and possibly with any fixed natural number ''n'' = ''N'', establishing the truth of the statement for all natu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Divisor
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one also says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible or evenly divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n; this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder. Definition An integer is divisible by a nonzero integer if there exists an integer such that n=km. This is written as :m\mid n. Other ways of saying the same thing are that divides , is a divisor of , is a factor of , and is a multiple of . If does not divide , then the notation is m\not\mid n. Usually, is required to be nonzero, but is allowed to be zero. With this convention, m \mid 0 for every nonzero integer . Some definitions omit the requirement that m be nonzero. General Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors. For example, there are six divisors of 4; they ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiplicative Function
In number theory, a multiplicative function is an arithmetic function ''f''(''n'') of a positive integer ''n'' with the property that ''f''(1) = 1 and f(ab) = f(a)f(b) whenever ''a'' and ''b'' are coprime. An arithmetic function ''f''(''n'') is said to be completely multiplicative (or totally multiplicative) if ''f''(1) = 1 and ''f''(''ab'') = ''f''(''a'')''f''(''b'') holds ''for all'' positive integers ''a'' and ''b'', even when they are not coprime. Examples Some multiplicative functions are defined to make formulas easier to write: * 1(''n''): the constant function, defined by 1(''n'') = 1 (completely multiplicative) * Id(''n''): identity function, defined by Id(''n'') = ''n'' (completely multiplicative) * Id''k''(''n''): the power functions, defined by Id''k''(''n'') = ''n''''k'' for any complex number ''k'' (completely multiplicative). As special cases we have ** Id0(''n'') = 1(''n'') and ** Id1(''n'') = Id(''n''). * ''ε''(''n''): the function defined by ''ε''(''n'') ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Additive Function
In number theory, an additive function is an arithmetic function ''f''(''n'') of the positive integer variable ''n'' such that whenever ''a'' and ''b'' are coprime, the function applied to the product ''ab'' is the sum of the values of the function applied to ''a'' and ''b'':Erdös, P., and M. Kac. On the Gaussian Law of Errors in the Theory of Additive Functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1939 April; 25(4): 206–207online/ref> f(a b) = f(a) + f(b). Completely additive An additive function ''f''(''n'') is said to be completely additive if f(a b) = f(a) + f(b) holds ''for all'' positive integers ''a'' and ''b'', even when they are not coprime. Totally additive is also used in this sense by analogy with totally multiplicative functions. If ''f'' is a completely additive function then ''f''(1) = 0. Every completely additive function is additive, but not vice versa. Examples Examples of arithmetic functions which are completely additive are: * The restriction of the Logarithm ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer Factorization
In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers. If these factors are further restricted to prime numbers, the process is called prime factorization. When the numbers are sufficiently large, no efficient nonquantum integer factorization algorithm is known. However, it has not been proven that such an algorithm does not exist. The presumed difficulty of this problem is important for the algorithms used in cryptography such as RSA publickey encryption and the RSA digital signature. Many areas of mathematics and computer science have been brought to bear on the problem, including elliptic curves, algebraic number theory, and quantum computing. In 2019, Fabrice Boudot, Pierrick Gaudry, Aurore Guillevic, Nadia Heninger, Emmanuel Thomé and Paul Zimmermann factored a 240digit (795bit) number (RSA240) utilizing approximately 900 coreyears of computing power. The researchers estimated that a 1024bit RSA ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Greatest Common Divisor
In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers. For two integers ''x'', ''y'', the greatest common divisor of ''x'' and ''y'' is denoted \gcd (x,y). For example, the GCD of 8 and 12 is 4, that is, \gcd (8, 12) = 4. In the name "greatest common divisor", the adjective "greatest" may be replaced by "highest", and the word "divisor" may be replaced by "factor", so that other names include highest common factor (hcf), etc. Historically, other names for the same concept have included greatest common measure. This notion can be extended to polynomials (see Polynomial greatest common divisor) and other commutative rings (see below). Overview Definition The ''greatest common divisor'' (GCD) of two nonzero integers and is the greatest positive integer such that is a divisor of both and ; that is, there are integers and such that and , and is the largest s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rational Number
In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a nonzero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ). The set of all rational numbers, also referred to as "the rationals", the field of rationals or the field of rational numbers is usually denoted by boldface , or blackboard bold \mathbb. A rational number is a real number. The real numbers that are rational are those whose decimal expansion either terminates after a finite number of digits (example: ), or eventually begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over (example: ). This statement is true not only in base 10, but also in every other integer base, such as the binary and hexadecimal ones (see ). A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include , , , and . Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infinite Product
In mathematics, for a sequence of complex numbers ''a''1, ''a''2, ''a''3, ... the infinite product : \prod_^ a_n = a_1 a_2 a_3 \cdots is defined to be the limit of a sequence, limit of the Multiplication#Capital pi notation, partial products ''a''1''a''2...''a''''n'' as ''n'' increases without bound. The product is said to ''Limit of a sequence, converge'' when the limit exists and is not zero. Otherwise the product is said to ''diverge''. A limit of zero is treated specially in order to obtain results analogous to those for Infinite series, infinite sums. Some sources allow convergence to 0 if there are only a finite number of zero factors and the product of the nonzero factors is nonzero, but for simplicity we will not allow that here. If the product converges, then the limit of the sequence ''a''''n'' as ''n'' increases without bound must be 1, while the converse is in general not true. The best known examples of infinite products are probably some of the formulae for pi, &p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Empty Product
In mathematics, an empty product, or nullary product or vacuous product, is the result of multiplying no factors. It is by convention equal to the multiplicative identity (assuming there is an identity for the multiplication operation in question), just as the empty sum—the result of adding no numbers—is by convention zero, or the additive identity. When numbers are implied, the empty product becomes one. The term ''empty product'' is most often used in the above sense when discussing arithmetic operations. However, the term is sometimes employed when discussing settheoretic intersections, categorical products, and products in computer programming; these are discussed below. Nullary arithmetic product Definition Let ''a''1, ''a''2, ''a''3, ... be a sequence of numbers, and let :P_m = \prod_^m a_i = a_1 \cdots a_m be the product of the first ''m'' elements of the sequence. Then :P_m = P_ a_m for all ''m'' = 1, 2, ... provided that we use the convention P_0 = ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Canonical Form
In mathematics and computer science, a canonical, normal, or standard form of a mathematical object is a standard way of presenting that object as a mathematical expression. Often, it is one which provides the simplest representation of an object and which allows it to be identified in a unique way. The distinction between "canonical" and "normal" forms varies from subfield to subfield. In most fields, a canonical form specifies a ''unique'' representation for every object, while a normal form simply specifies its form, without the requirement of uniqueness. The canonical form of a positive integer in decimal representation is a finite sequence of digits that does not begin with zero. More generally, for a class of objects on which an equivalence relation is defined, a canonical form consists in the choice of a specific object in each class. For example: *Jordan normal form is a canonical form for matrix similarity. *The row echelon form is a canonical form, when one considers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 