Full Functor
In category theory, a faithful functor is a functor that is injective on homsets, and a full functor is surjective on homsets. A functor that has both properties is called a full and faithful functor. Formal definitions Explicitly, let ''C'' and ''D'' be ( locally small) categories and let ''F'' : ''C'' → ''D'' be a functor from ''C'' to ''D''. The functor ''F'' induces a function :F_\colon\mathrm_(X,Y)\rightarrow\mathrm_(F(X),F(Y)) for every pair of objects ''X'' and ''Y'' in ''C''. The functor ''F'' is said to be *faithful if ''F''''X'',''Y'' is injectiveJacobson (2009), p. 22 *full if ''F''''X'',''Y'' is surjectiveMac Lane (1971), p. 14 *fully faithful (= full and faithful) if ''F''''X'',''Y'' is bijective for each ''X'' and ''Y'' in ''C''. A mnemonic for remembering the term "full" is that the image of the function fills the codomain; a mnemonic for remembering the term "faithful" is that you can trust (have faith) that F(X)=F(Y) implies X=Y. Properties A faithful fu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism com ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Homomorphism
In mathematics, given two groups, (''G'', ∗) and (''H'', ·), a group homomorphism from (''G'', ∗) to (''H'', ·) is a function ''h'' : ''G'' → ''H'' such that for all ''u'' and ''v'' in ''G'' it holds that : h(u*v) = h(u) \cdot h(v) where the group operation on the left side of the equation is that of ''G'' and on the right side that of ''H''. From this property, one can deduce that ''h'' maps the identity element ''eG'' of ''G'' to the identity element ''eH'' of ''H'', : h(e_G) = e_H and it also maps inverses to inverses in the sense that : h\left(u^\right) = h(u)^. \, Hence one can say that ''h'' "is compatible with the group structure". Older notations for the homomorphism ''h''(''x'') may be ''x''''h'' or ''x''''h'', though this may be confused as an index or a general subscript. In automata theory, sometimes homomorphisms are written to the right of their arguments without parentheses, so that ''h''(''x'') becomes simply xh. In areas of mathematics where one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Of Categories
In category theory, a branch of abstract mathematics, an equivalence of categories is a relation between two categories that establishes that these categories are "essentially the same". There are numerous examples of categorical equivalences from many areas of mathematics. Establishing an equivalence involves demonstrating strong similarities between the mathematical structures concerned. In some cases, these structures may appear to be unrelated at a superficial or intuitive level, making the notion fairly powerful: it creates the opportunity to "translate" theorems between different kinds of mathematical structures, knowing that the essential meaning of those theorems is preserved under the translation. If a category is equivalent to the opposite (or dual) of another category then one speaks of a duality of categories, and says that the two categories are dually equivalent. An equivalence of categories consists of a functor between the involved categories, which is required t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Full Subcategory
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a subcategory of a category ''C'' is a category ''S'' whose objects are objects in ''C'' and whose morphisms are morphisms in ''C'' with the same identities and composition of morphisms. Intuitively, a subcategory of ''C'' is a category obtained from ''C'' by "removing" some of its objects and arrows. Formal definition Let ''C'' be a category. A subcategory ''S'' of ''C'' is given by *a subcollection of objects of ''C'', denoted ob(''S''), *a subcollection of morphisms of ''C'', denoted hom(''S''). such that *for every ''X'' in ob(''S''), the identity morphism id''X'' is in hom(''S''), *for every morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' in hom(''S''), both the source ''X'' and the target ''Y'' are in ob(''S''), *for every pair of morphisms ''f'' and ''g'' in hom(''S'') the composite ''f'' o ''g'' is in hom(''S'') whenever it is defined. These conditions ensure that ''S'' is a category in its own right: its collection of objects is ob(''S'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Weak Equivalence (homotopy Theory)
In mathematics, a weak equivalence is a notion from homotopy theory that in some sense identifies objects that have the same "shape". This notion is formalized in the axiomatic definition of a model category. A model category is a category with classes of morphisms called weak equivalences, fibrations, and cofibrations, satisfying several axioms. The associated homotopy category of a model category has the same objects, but the morphisms are changed in order to make the weak equivalences into isomorphisms. It is a useful observation that the associated homotopy category depends only on the weak equivalences, not on the fibrations and cofibrations. Topological spaces Model categories were defined by Quillen as an axiomatization of homotopy theory that applies to topological spaces, but also to many other categories in algebra and geometry. The example that started the subject is the category of topological spaces with Serre fibrations as fibrations and weak homotopy equivalences as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quasicategory
In mathematics, more specifically category theory, a quasicategory (also called quasicategory, weak Kan complex, inner Kan complex, infinity category, ∞category, Boardman complex, quategory) is a generalization of the notion of a category. The study of such generalizations is known as higher category theory. Quasicategories were introduced by . André Joyal has much advanced the study of quasicategories showing that most of the usual basic category theory and some of the advanced notions and theorems have their analogues for quasicategories. An elaborate treatise of the theory of quasicategories has been expounded by . Quasicategories are certain simplicial sets. Like ordinary categories, they contain objects (the 0simplices of the simplicial set) and morphisms between these objects (1simplices). But unlike categories, the composition of two morphisms need not be uniquely defined. All the morphisms that can serve as composition of two given morphisms are related to ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Full Subcategory
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a subcategory of a category ''C'' is a category ''S'' whose objects are objects in ''C'' and whose morphisms are morphisms in ''C'' with the same identities and composition of morphisms. Intuitively, a subcategory of ''C'' is a category obtained from ''C'' by "removing" some of its objects and arrows. Formal definition Let ''C'' be a category. A subcategory ''S'' of ''C'' is given by *a subcollection of objects of ''C'', denoted ob(''S''), *a subcollection of morphisms of ''C'', denoted hom(''S''). such that *for every ''X'' in ob(''S''), the identity morphism id''X'' is in hom(''S''), *for every morphism ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' in hom(''S''), both the source ''X'' and the target ''Y'' are in ob(''S''), *for every pair of morphisms ''f'' and ''g'' in hom(''S'') the composite ''f'' o ''g'' is in hom(''S'') whenever it is defined. These conditions ensure that ''S'' is a category in its own right: its collection of objects is ob(''S'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Abelian Groups
In mathematics, the category Ab has the abelian groups as objects and group homomorphisms as morphisms. This is the prototype of an abelian category: indeed, every small abelian category can be embedded in Ab. Properties The zero object of Ab is the trivial group which consists only of its neutral element. The monomorphisms in Ab are the injective group homomorphisms, the epimorphisms are the surjective group homomorphisms, and the isomorphisms are the bijective group homomorphisms. Ab is a full subcategory of Grp, the category of ''all'' groups. The main difference between Ab and Grp is that the sum of two homomorphisms ''f'' and ''g'' between abelian groups is again a group homomorphism: :(''f''+''g'')(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x''+''y'') + ''g''(''x''+''y'') = ''f''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''g''(''y'') : = ''f''(''x'') + ''g''(''x'') + ''f''(''y'') + ''g''(''y'') = (''f''+''g'')(''x'') + (''f''+''g'')(''y'') The thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concrete Category
In mathematics, a concrete category is a category that is equipped with a faithful functor to the category of sets (or sometimes to another category, ''see Relative concreteness below''). This functor makes it possible to think of the objects of the category as sets with additional structure, and of its morphisms as structurepreserving functions. Many important categories have obvious interpretations as concrete categories, for example the category of topological spaces and the category of groups, and trivially also the category of sets itself. On the other hand, the homotopy category of topological spaces is not concretizable, i.e. it does not admit a faithful functor to the category of sets. A concrete category, when defined without reference to the notion of a category, consists of a class of ''objects'', each equipped with an ''underlying set''; and for any two objects ''A'' and ''B'' a set of functions, called ''morphisms'', from the underlying set of ''A'' to the underly ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Functor
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a functor is a mapping between categories. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects (such as the fundamental group) are associated to topological spaces, and maps between these algebraic objects are associated to continuous maps between spaces. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. Thus, functors are important in all areas within mathematics to which category theory is applied. The words ''category'' and ''functor'' were borrowed by mathematicians from the philosophers Aristotle and Rudolf Carnap, respectively. The latter used ''functor'' in a linguistic context; see function word. Definition Let ''C'' and ''D'' be categories. A functor ''F'' from ''C'' to ''D'' is a mapping that * associates each object X in ''C'' to an object F(X) in ''D'', * associates each morphism f \colon X \to Y in ''C'' to a morphism F(f) \colon F(X) \to F(Y) in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Forgetful Functor
In mathematics, in the area of category theory, a forgetful functor (also known as a stripping functor) 'forgets' or drops some or all of the input's structure or properties 'before' mapping to the output. For an algebraic structure of a given signature, this may be expressed by curtailing the signature: the new signature is an edited form of the old one. If the signature is left as an empty list, the functor is simply to take the underlying set of a structure. Because many structures in mathematics consist of a set with an additional added structure, a forgetful functor that maps to the underlying set is the most common case. Overview As an example, there are several forgetful functors from the category of commutative rings. A ( unital) ring, described in the language of universal algebra, is an ordered tuple (R,+,\times,a,0,1) satisfying certain axioms, where + and \times are binary functions on the set R, a is a unary operation corresponding to additive inverse, and 0 and 1 ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 