Free Abelian Group
In mathematics, a free abelian group is an abelian group with a basis. Being an abelian group means that it is a set with an addition operation that is associative, commutative, and invertible. A basis, also called an integral basis, is a subset such that every element of the group can be uniquely expressed as an integer combination of finitely many basis elements. For instance the twodimensional integer lattice forms a free abelian group, with coordinatewise addition as its operation, and with the two points (1,0) and (0,1) as its basis. Free abelian groups have properties which make them similar to vector spaces, and may equivalently be called free the free modules over the integers. Lattice theory studies free abelian subgroups of real vector spaces. In algebraic topology, free abelian groups are used to define chain groups, and in algebraic geometry they are used to define divisors. The elements of a free abelian group with basis B may be described in several equivale ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Topology
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence. Although algebraic topology primarily uses algebra to study topological problems, using topology to solve algebraic problems is sometimes also possible. Algebraic topology, for example, allows for a convenient proof that any subgroup of a free group is again a free group. Main branches of algebraic topology Below are some of the main areas studied in algebraic topology: Homotopy groups In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces. The first and simplest homotopy group is the fundamental group, which records information about loops in a space. Intuitively, homotopy groups record information about the basic shape, or holes, of a topological space. Homology In a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quotient Group
A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves some of the group structure (the rest of the structure is "factored" out). For example, the cyclic group of addition modulo ''n'' can be obtained from the group of integers under addition by identifying elements that differ by a multiple of n and defining a group structure that operates on each such class (known as a congruence class) as a single entity. It is part of the mathematical field known as group theory. For a congruence relation on a group, the equivalence class of the identity element is always a normal subgroup of the original group, and the other equivalence classes are precisely the cosets of that normal subgroup. The resulting quotient is written G\,/\,N, where G is the original group and N is the normal subgroup. (This is pronounced G\bmod N, where \mbox is short for modulo.) Much of the importance o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the number of elements of the set. For example, the set A = \ contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. Beginning in the late 19th century, this concept was generalized to infinite sets, which allows one to distinguish between different types of infinity, and to perform arithmetic on them. There are two approaches to cardinality: one which compares sets directly using bijections and injections, and another which uses cardinal numbers. The cardinality of a set is also called its size, when no confusion with other notions of size is possible. The cardinality of a set A is usually denoted , A, , with a vertical bar on each side; this is the same notation as absolute value, and the meaning depends on context. The cardinality of a set A may alternatively be denoted by n(A), , \operatorname(A), or \#A. History A crude sense of cardinality, an awareness that groups of things or events compare with other gr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rank Of An Abelian Group
In mathematics, the rank, Prüfer rank, or torsionfree rank of an abelian group ''A'' is the cardinality of a maximal linearly independent subset. The rank of ''A'' determines the size of the largest free abelian group contained in ''A''. If ''A'' is torsionfree then it embeds into a vector space over the rational numbers of dimension rank ''A''. For finitely generated abelian groups, rank is a strong invariant and every such group is determined up to isomorphism by its rank and torsion subgroup. Torsionfree abelian groups of rank 1 have been completely classified. However, the theory of abelian groups of higher rank is more involved. The term rank has a different meaning in the context of elementary abelian groups. Definition A subset of an abelian group ''A'' is linearly independent (over Z) if the only linear combination of these elements that is equal to zero is trivial: if : \sum_\alpha n_\alpha a_\alpha = 0, \quad n_\alpha\in\mathbb, where all but finitely many coe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutator
In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. There are different definitions used in group theory and ring theory. Group theory The commutator of two elements, and , of a group , is the element : . This element is equal to the group's identity if and only if and commute (from the definition , being equal to the identity if and only if ). The set of all commutators of a group is not in general closed under the group operation, but the subgroup of ''G'' generated by all commutators is closed and is called the ''derived group'' or the '' commutator subgroup'' of ''G''. Commutators are used to define nilpotent and solvable groups and the largest abelian quotient group. The definition of the commutator above is used throughout this article, but many other group theorists define the commutator as :. Identities (group theory) Commutator identities are an important tool in group theory. The e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Presentation Of A Group
In mathematics, a presentation is one method of specifying a group. A presentation of a group ''G'' comprises a set ''S'' of generators—so that every element of the group can be written as a product of powers of some of these generators—and a set ''R'' of relations among those generators. We then say ''G'' has presentation :\langle S \mid R\rangle. Informally, ''G'' has the above presentation if it is the "freest group" generated by ''S'' subject only to the relations ''R''. Formally, the group ''G'' is said to have the above presentation if it is isomorphic to the quotient of a free group on ''S'' by the normal subgroup generated by the relations ''R''. As a simple example, the cyclic group of order ''n'' has the presentation :\langle a \mid a^n = 1\rangle, where 1 is the group identity. This may be written equivalently as :\langle a \mid a^n\rangle, thanks to the convention that terms that do not include an equals sign are taken to be equal to the group identity. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Sum
The direct sum is an operation between structures in abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics. It is defined differently, but analogously, for different kinds of structures. To see how the direct sum is used in abstract algebra, consider a more elementary kind of structure, the abelian group. The direct sum of two abelian groups A and B is another abelian group A\oplus B consisting of the ordered pairs (a,b) where a \in A and b \in B. To add ordered pairs, we define the sum (a, b) + (c, d) to be (a + c, b + d); in other words addition is defined coordinatewise. For example, the direct sum \Reals \oplus \Reals , where \Reals is real coordinate space, is the Cartesian plane, \R ^2 . A similar process can be used to form the direct sum of two vector spaces or two modules. We can also form direct sums with any finite number of summands, for example A \oplus B \oplus C, provided A, B, and C are the same kinds of algebraic structures (e.g., all abelian groups, or all vector spa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Isomorphism
In abstract algebra, a group isomorphism is a function between two groups that sets up a onetoone correspondence between the elements of the groups in a way that respects the given group operations. If there exists an isomorphism between two groups, then the groups are called isomorphic. From the standpoint of group theory, isomorphic groups have the same properties and need not be distinguished. Definition and notation Given two groups (G, *) and (H, \odot), a ''group isomorphism'' from (G, *) to (H, \odot) is a bijective group homomorphism from G to H. Spelled out, this means that a group isomorphism is a bijective function f : G \to H such that for all u and v in G it holds that f(u * v) = f(u) \odot f(v). The two groups (G, *) and (H, \odot) are isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism from one to the other. This is written (G, *) \cong (H, \odot). Often shorter and simpler notations can be used. When the relevant group operations are understood, they are omitted and on ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pointwise
In mathematics, the qualifier pointwise is used to indicate that a certain property is defined by considering each value f(x) of some function f. An important class of pointwise concepts are the ''pointwise operations'', that is, operations defined on functions by applying the operations to function values separately for each point in the domain of definition. Important relations can also be defined pointwise. Pointwise operations Formal definition A binary operation on a set can be lifted pointwise to an operation on the set of all functions from to as follows: Given two functions and , define the function by Commonly, ''o'' and ''O'' are denoted by the same symbol. A similar definition is used for unary operations ''o'', and for operations of other arity. Examples \begin (f+g)(x) & = f(x)+g(x) & \text \\ (f\cdot g)(x) & = f(x) \cdot g(x) & \text \\ (\lambda \cdot f)(x) & = \lambda \cdot f(x) & \text \end where f, g : X \to R. See also pointwise product, and scalar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians AlBiruni and Sharaf alDin alTusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multiset
In mathematics, a multiset (or bag, or mset) is a modification of the concept of a set that, unlike a set, allows for multiple instances for each of its elements. The number of instances given for each element is called the multiplicity of that element in the multiset. As a consequence, an infinite number of multisets exist which contain only elements and , but vary in the multiplicities of their elements: * The set contains only elements and , each having multiplicity 1 when is seen as a multiset. * In the multiset , the element has multiplicity 2, and has multiplicity 1. * In the multiset , and both have multiplicity 3. These objects are all different when viewed as multisets, although they are the same set, since they all consist of the same elements. As with sets, and in contrast to tuples, order does not matter in discriminating multisets, so and denote the same multiset. To distinguish between sets and multisets, a notation that incorporates square brackets i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 