Forgetful Functor
In mathematics, in the area of category theory, a forgetful functor (also known as a stripping functor) 'forgets' or drops some or all of the input's structure or properties 'before' mapping to the output. For an algebraic structure of a given signature, this may be expressed by curtailing the signature: the new signature is an edited form of the old one. If the signature is left as an empty list, the functor is simply to take the underlying set of a structure. Because many structures in mathematics consist of a set with an additional added structure, a forgetful functor that maps to the underlying set is the most common case. Overview As an example, there are several forgetful functors from the category of commutative rings. A ( unital) ring, described in the language of universal algebra, is an ordered tuple (R,+,\times,a,0,1) satisfying certain axioms, where + and \times are binary functions on the set R, a is a unary operation corresponding to additive inverse, and 0 and 1 ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Sets
In the mathematical field of category theory, the category of sets, denoted as Set, is the category whose objects are sets. The arrows or morphisms between sets ''A'' and ''B'' are the total functions from ''A'' to ''B'', and the composition of morphisms is the composition of functions. Many other categories (such as the category of groups, with group homomorphisms as arrows) add structure to the objects of the category of sets and/or restrict the arrows to functions of a particular kind. Properties of the category of sets The axioms of a category are satisfied by Set because composition of functions is associative, and because every set ''X'' has an identity function id''X'' : ''X'' → ''X'' which serves as identity element for function composition. The epimorphisms in Set are the surjective maps, the monomorphisms are the injective maps, and the isomorphisms are the bijective maps. The empty set serves as the initial object in Set with empty functions as morphisms. Eve ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Category
In mathematics, the free category or path category generated by a directed graph or quiver is the category that results from freely concatenating arrows together, whenever the target of one arrow is the source of the next. More precisely, the objects of the category are the vertices of the quiver, and the morphisms are paths between objects. Here, a path is defined as a finite sequence :V_0\xrightarrow V_1\xrightarrow \cdots \xrightarrow V_n where V_k is a vertex of the quiver, E_k is an edge of the quiver, and ''n'' ranges over the nonnegative integers. For every vertex V of the quiver, there is an "empty path" which constitutes the identity morphisms of the category. The composition operation is concatenation of paths. Given paths :V_0\xrightarrow\cdots\xrightarrow V_n,\quad V_n\xrightarrowW_0\xrightarrow\cdots\xrightarrow W_m, their composition is :\left(V_n\xrightarrowW_0\xrightarrow\cdots\xrightarrow W_m \right) \circ \left(V_0\xrightarrow\cdots\xrightarrow V_n \right) := ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tensor Algebra
In mathematics, the tensor algebra of a vector space ''V'', denoted ''T''(''V'') or ''T''(''V''), is the algebra of tensors on ''V'' (of any rank) with multiplication being the tensor product. It is the free algebra on ''V'', in the sense of being left adjoint to the forgetful functor from algebras to vector spaces: it is the "most general" algebra containing ''V'', in the sense of the corresponding universal property (see below). The tensor algebra is important because many other algebras arise as quotient algebras of ''T''(''V''). These include the exterior algebra, the symmetric algebra, Clifford algebras, the Weyl algebra and universal enveloping algebras. The tensor algebra also has two coalgebra structures; one simple one, which does not make it a bialgebra, but does lead to the concept of a cofree coalgebra, and a more complicated one, which yields a bialgebra, and can be extended by giving an antipode to create a Hopf algebra structure. ''Note'': In this article, all ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Lattice
In mathematics, in the area of order theory, a free lattice is the free object corresponding to a lattice. As free objects, they have the universal property. Formal definition Any set ''X'' may be used to generate the free semilattice ''FX''. The free semilattice is defined to consist of all of the finite subsets of ''X'', with the semilattice operation given by ordinary set union. The free semilattice has the universal property. The universal morphism is , where η is the unit map η: ''X'' → ''FX'' which takes ''x'' ∈ ''X'' to the singleton set . The universal property is then as follows: given any map ''f'': ''X'' → ''L'' from ''X'' to some arbitrary semilattice ''L'', there exists a unique semilattice homomorphism \tilde:FX \to L such that f = \tilde\circ\eta. The map \tilde may be explicitly written down; it is given by :S \in FX \mapsto \bigvee\left\ where \bigvee denotes the semilattice operation in ''L''. This construction may be promoted from semilattices to latti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Group
In mathematics, the free group ''F''''S'' over a given set ''S'' consists of all words that can be built from members of ''S'', considering two words to be different unless their equality follows from the group axioms (e.g. ''st'' = ''suu''−1''t'', but ''s'' ≠ ''t''−1 for ''s'',''t'',''u'' ∈ ''S''). The members of ''S'' are called generators of ''F''''S'', and the number of generators is the rank of the free group. An arbitrary group ''G'' is called free if it is isomorphic to ''F''''S'' for some subset ''S'' of ''G'', that is, if there is a subset ''S'' of ''G'' such that every element of ''G'' can be written in exactly one way as a product of finitely many elements of ''S'' and their inverses (disregarding trivial variations such as ''st'' = ''suu''−1''t''). A related but different notion is a free abelian group; both notions are particular instances of a free object from universal algebra. As such, free groups are defined by their universal property. History Fre ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Basis (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, a set of vectors in a vector space is called a basis if every element of may be written in a unique way as a finite linear combination of elements of . The coefficients of this linear combination are referred to as components or coordinates of the vector with respect to . The elements of a basis are called . Equivalently, a set is a basis if its elements are linearly independent and every element of is a linear combination of elements of . In other words, a basis is a linearly independent spanning set. A vector space can have several bases; however all the bases have the same number of elements, called the ''dimension'' of the vector space. This article deals mainly with finitedimensional vector spaces. However, many of the principles are also valid for infinitedimensional vector spaces. Definition A basis of a vector space over a field (such as the real numbers or the complex numbers ) is a linearly independent subset of that spans . ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Module (mathematics)
In mathematics, a module is a generalization of the notion of vector space in which the field of scalars is replaced by a ring. The concept of ''module'' generalizes also the notion of abelian group, since the abelian groups are exactly the modules over the ring of integers. Like a vector space, a module is an additive abelian group, and scalar multiplication is distributive over the operation of addition between elements of the ring or module and is compatible with the ring multiplication. Modules are very closely related to the representation theory of groups. They are also one of the central notions of commutative algebra and homological algebra, and are used widely in algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Introduction and definition Motivation In a vector space, the set of scalars is a field and acts on the vectors by scalar multiplication, subject to certain axioms such as the distributive law. In a module, the scalars need only be a ring, so the module co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Module
In mathematics, a free module is a module that has a basis – that is, a generating set consisting of linearly independent elements. Every vector space is a free module, but, if the ring of the coefficients is not a division ring (not a field in the commutative case), then there exist nonfree modules. Given any set and ring , there is a free module with basis , which is called the ''free module on'' or ''module of formal'' ''linear combinations'' of the elements of . A free abelian group is precisely a free module over the ring of integers. Definition For a ring R and an R module M, the set E\subseteq M is a basis for M if: * E is a generating set for M; that is to say, every element of M is a finite sum of elements of E multiplied by coefficients in R; and * E is linearly independent, that is, for every subset \ of distinct elements of E, r_1 e_1 + r_2 e_2 + \cdots + r_n e_n = 0_M implies that r_1 = r_2 = \cdots = r_n = 0_R (where 0_M is the zero element of M and 0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Object
In mathematics, the idea of a free object is one of the basic concepts of abstract algebra. Informally, a free object over a set ''A'' can be thought of as being a "generic" algebraic structure over ''A'': the only equations that hold between elements of the free object are those that follow from the defining axioms of the algebraic structure. Examples include free groups, tensor algebras, or free lattices. The concept is a part of universal algebra, in the sense that it relates to all types of algebraic structure (with finitary operations). It also has a formulation in terms of category theory, although this is in yet more abstract terms. Definition Free objects are the direct generalization to categories of the notion of basis in a vector space. A linear function between vector spaces is entirely determined by its values on a basis of the vector space The following definition translates this to any category. A concrete category is a category that is equipped with a faithf ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Left Adjoint
In mathematics, specifically category theory, adjunction is a relationship that two functors may exhibit, intuitively corresponding to a weak form of equivalence between two related categories. Two functors that stand in this relationship are known as adjoint functors, one being the left adjoint and the other the right adjoint. Pairs of adjoint functors are ubiquitous in mathematics and often arise from constructions of "optimal solutions" to certain problems (i.e., constructions of objects having a certain universal property), such as the construction of a free group on a set in algebra, or the construction of the Stone–Čech compactification of a topological space in topology. By definition, an adjunction between categories \mathcal and \mathcal is a pair of functors (assumed to be covariant) :F: \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal and G: \mathcal \rightarrow \mathcal and, for all objects X in \mathcal and Y in \mathcal a bijection between the respective morphism s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fibred Category
Fibred categories (or fibered categories) are abstract entities in mathematics used to provide a general framework for descent theory. They formalise the various situations in geometry and algebra in which ''inverse images'' (or ''pullbacks'') of objects such as vector bundles can be defined. As an example, for each topological space there is the category of vector bundles on the space, and for every continuous map from a topological space ''X'' to another topological space ''Y'' is associated the pullback functor taking bundles on ''Y'' to bundles on ''X''. Fibred categories formalise the system consisting of these categories and inverse image functors. Similar setups appear in various guises in mathematics, in particular in algebraic geometry, which is the context in which fibred categories originally appeared. Fibered categories are used to define stacks, which are fibered categories (over a site) with "descent". Fibrations also play an important role in categorical semantics of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 