Flat (geometry)
In geometry, a flat or Euclidean subspace is a subset of a Euclidean space that is itself a Euclidean space (of lower dimension). The flats in twodimensional space are points and lines, and the flats in threedimensional space are points, lines, and planes. In a dimensional space, there are flats of every dimension from 0 to ; flats of dimension are called ''hyperplanes''. Flats are the affine subspaces of Euclidean spaces, which means that they are similar to linear subspaces, except that they need not pass through the origin. Flats occur in linear algebra, as geometric realizations of solution sets of systems of linear equations. A flat is a manifold and an algebraic variety, and is sometimes called a ''linear manifold'' or ''linear variety'' to distinguish it from other manifolds or varieties. Descriptions By equations A flat can be described by a system of linear equations. For example, a line in twodimensional space can be described by a single linear equation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometry
Geometry (; ) is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a ''geometer''. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts. During the 19th century several discoveries enlarged dramatically the scope of geometry. One of the oldest such discoveries is Carl Friedrich Gauss' ("remarkable theorem") that asserts roughly that the Gaussian curvature of a surface is independent from any specific embedding in a Euclidean space. This implies that surfaces can be studied ''intrinsically'', that is, as standalone spaces, and has been expanded into the theory of manifolds and Riemannian geometry. Later in the 19th century, it appeared that geometries ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intersection (set Theory)
In set theory, the intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set containing all elements of A that also belong to B or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A. Notation and terminology Intersection is written using the symbol "\cap" between the terms; that is, in infix notation. For example: \\cap\=\ \\cap\=\varnothing \Z\cap\N=\N \\cap\N=\ The intersection of more than two sets (generalized intersection) can be written as: \bigcap_^n A_i which is similar to capitalsigma notation. For an explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Definition The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set of all objects that are members of both the sets A and B. In symbols: A \cap B = \. That is, x is an element of the intersection A \cap B if and only if x is both an element of A and an element of B. For example: * The intersection of the sets and is . * The number 9 is in t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Affine Space
In mathematics, an affine space is a geometric structure that generalizes some of the properties of Euclidean spaces in such a way that these are independent of the concepts of distance and measure of angles, keeping only the properties related to parallelism and ratio of lengths for parallel line segments. In an affine space, there is no distinguished point that serves as an origin. Hence, no vector has a fixed origin and no vector can be uniquely associated to a point. In an affine space, there are instead ''displacement vectors'', also called ''translation'' vectors or simply ''translations'', between two points of the space. Thus it makes sense to subtract two points of the space, giving a translation vector, but it does not make sense to add two points of the space. Likewise, it makes sense to add a displacement vector to a point of an affine space, resulting in a new point translated from the starting point by that vector. Any vector space may be viewed as an affine spa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Distance
In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points. It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points using the Pythagorean theorem, therefore occasionally being called the Pythagorean distance. These names come from the ancient Greek mathematicians Euclid and Pythagoras, although Euclid did not represent distances as numbers, and the connection from the Pythagorean theorem to distance calculation was not made until the 18th century. The distance between two objects that are not points is usually defined to be the smallest distance among pairs of points from the two objects. Formulas are known for computing distances between different types of objects, such as the distance from a point to a line. In advanced mathematics, the concept of distance has been generalized to abstract metric spaces, and other distances than Euclidean have been studied. In some applications in statistic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distributive Property
In mathematics, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law, which asserts that the equality x \cdot (y + z) = x \cdot y + x \cdot z is always true in elementary algebra. For example, in elementary arithmetic, one has 2 \cdot (1 + 3) = (2 \cdot 1) + (2 \cdot 3). One says that multiplication ''distributes'' over addition. This basic property of numbers is part of the definition of most algebraic structures that have two operations called addition and multiplication, such as complex numbers, polynomials, Matrix (mathematics), matrices, Ring (mathematics), rings, and Field (mathematics), fields. It is also encountered in Boolean algebra and mathematical logic, where each of the logical and (denoted \,\land\,) and the logical or (denoted \,\lor\,) distributes over the other. Definition Given a Set (mathematics), set S and two binary operators \,*\, and \,+\, on S, *the operation \,*\, is over (or with respect to) \,+\, if, given any elements x ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distributive Lattice
In mathematics, a distributive lattice is a lattice in which the operations of join and meet distribute over each other. The prototypical examples of such structures are collections of sets for which the lattice operations can be given by set union and intersection. Indeed, these lattices of sets describe the scenery completely: every distributive lattice is—up to isomorphism—given as such a lattice of sets. Definition As in the case of arbitrary lattices, one can choose to consider a distributive lattice ''L'' either as a structure of order theory or of universal algebra. Both views and their mutual correspondence are discussed in the article on lattices. In the present situation, the algebraic description appears to be more convenient. A lattice (''L'',∨,∧) is distributive if the following additional identity holds for all ''x'', ''y'', and ''z'' in ''L'': : ''x'' ∧ (''y'' ∨ ''z'') = (''x'' ∧ ''y'') ∨ (''x'' ∧ ''z''). Viewing lattices as partially ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plücker Coordinates
In geometry, Plücker coordinates, introduced by Julius Plücker in the 19th century, are a way to assign six homogeneous coordinates to each line in projective 3space, P3. Because they satisfy a quadratic constraint, they establish a onetoone correspondence between the 4dimensional space of lines in P3 and points on a quadric in P5 (projective 5space). A predecessor and special case of Grassmann coordinates (which describe ''k''dimensional linear subspaces, or ''flats'', in an ''n''dimensional Euclidean space), Plücker coordinates arise naturally in geometric algebra. They have proved useful for computer graphics, and also can be extended to coordinates for the screws and wrenches in the theory of kinematics used for robot control. Geometric intuition A line L in 3dimensional Euclidean space is determined by two distinct points that it contains, or by two distinct planes that contain it. Consider the first case, with points x=(x_1,x_2,x_3) and y=(y_1,y_2,y_3). The ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice (order)
A lattice is an abstract structure studied in the mathematical subdisciplines of order theory and abstract algebra. It consists of a partially ordered set in which every pair of elements has a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet). An example is given by the power set of a set, partially ordered by inclusion, for which the supremum is the union and the infimum is the intersection. Another example is given by the natural numbers, partially ordered by divisibility, for which the supremum is the least common multiple and the infimum is the greatest common divisor. Lattices can also be characterized as algebraic structures satisfying certain axiomatic identities. Since the two definitions are equivalent, lattice theory draws on both order theory and universal algebra. Semilattices include lattices, which in turn include Heyting and Boolean algebras. These ''latticelike'' structures all admi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Skew Flats
In threedimensional geometry, skew lines are two lines that do not intersect and are not parallel. A simple example of a pair of skew lines is the pair of lines through opposite edges of a regular tetrahedron. Two lines that both lie in the same plane must either cross each other or be parallel, so skew lines can exist only in three or more dimensions. Two lines are skew if and only if they are not coplanar. General position If four points are chosen at random uniformly within a unit cube, they will almost surely define a pair of skew lines. After the first three points have been chosen, the fourth point will define a nonskew line if, and only if, it is coplanar with the first three points. However, the plane through the first three points forms a subset of measure zero of the cube, and the probability that the fourth point lies on this plane is zero. If it does not, the lines defined by the points will be skew. Similarly, in threedimensional space a very small perturbati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parallel (geometry)
In geometry, parallel lines are coplanar straight lines that do not intersect at any point. Parallel planes are planes in the same threedimensional space that never meet. ''Parallel curves'' are curves that do not touch each other or intersect and keep a fixed minimum distance. In threedimensional Euclidean space, a line and a plane that do not share a point are also said to be parallel. However, two noncoplanar lines are called ''skew lines''. Parallel lines are the subject of Euclid's parallel postulate. Parallelism is primarily a property of affine geometries and Euclidean geometry is a special instance of this type of geometry. In some other geometries, such as hyperbolic geometry, lines can have analogous properties that are referred to as parallelism. Symbol The parallel symbol is \parallel. For example, AB \parallel CD indicates that line ''AB'' is parallel to line ''CD''. In the Unicode character set, the "parallel" and "not parallel" signs have codepoint ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Empty Set
In mathematics, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero. Some axiomatic set theories ensure that the empty set exists by including an axiom of empty set, while in other theories, its existence can be deduced. Many possible properties of sets are vacuously true for the empty set. Any set other than the empty set is called nonempty. In some textbooks and popularizations, the empty set is referred to as the "null set". However, null set is a distinct notion within the context of measure theory, in which it describes a set of measure zero (which is not necessarily empty). The empty set may also be called the void set. Notation Common notations for the empty set include "", "\emptyset", and "∅". The latter two symbols were introduced by the Bourbaki group (specifically André Weil) in 1939, inspired by the letter Ø in the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. In the past, "0" was occasionally used as a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set Intersection
In set theory, the intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set containing all elements of A that also belong to B or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A. Notation and terminology Intersection is written using the symbol "\cap" between the terms; that is, in infix notation. For example: \\cap\=\ \\cap\=\varnothing \Z\cap\N=\N \\cap\N=\ The intersection of more than two sets (generalized intersection) can be written as: \bigcap_^n A_i which is similar to capitalsigma notation. For an explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Definition The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set of all objects that are members of both the sets A and B. In symbols: A \cap B = \. That is, x is an element of the intersection A \cap B if and only if x is both an element of A and an element of B. For example: * The intersection of the sets and is . * The number 9 is in th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 