First-countable Space
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 First-countable Space In topology, a branch of mathematics, a first-countable space is a topological space satisfying the "first axiom of countability". Specifically, a space X is said to be first-countable if each point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base). That is, for each point x in X there exists a sequence N_1, N_2, \ldots of neighbourhoods of x such that for any neighbourhood N of x there exists an integer i with N_i contained in N. Since every neighborhood of any point contains an open neighborhood of that point, the neighbourhood basis can be chosen without loss of generality to consist of open neighborhoods. Examples and counterexamples The majority of 'everyday' spaces in mathematics are first-countable. In particular, every metric space is first-countable. To see this, note that the set of open balls centered at x with radius 1/n for integers form a countable local base at x. An example of a space which is not first-countable is the cofinite topology on an uncountable set ( ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Topology In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object that are preserved under Continuous function, continuous Deformation theory, deformations, such as Stretch factor, stretching, Twist (mathematics), twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set (mathematics), set endowed with a structure, called a ''Topology (structure), topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity (mathematics), continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopy, homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic exampl ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Quotient Space (topology) In topology and related areas of mathematics, the quotient space of a topological space under a given equivalence relation is a new topological space constructed by endowing the quotient set of the original topological space with the quotient topology, that is, with the finest topology that makes continuous the canonical projection map (the function that maps points to their equivalence classes). In other words, a subset of a quotient space is open if and only if its preimage under the canonical projection map is open in the original topological space. Intuitively speaking, the points of each equivalence class are or "glued together" for forming a new topological space. For example, identifying the points of a sphere that belong to the same diameter produces the projective plane as a quotient space. Definition Let \left(X, \tau_X\right) be a topological space, and let \,\sim\, be an equivalence relation on X. The quotient set, Y = X / \sim\, is the set of equivalence classes o ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Order Topology In mathematics, an order topology is a certain topology that can be defined on any totally ordered set. It is a natural generalization of the topology of the real numbers to arbitrary totally ordered sets. If ''X'' is a totally ordered set, the order topology on ''X'' is generated by the subbase of "open rays" :\ :\ for all ''a, b'' in ''X''. Provided ''X'' has at least two elements, this is equivalent to saying that the open intervals :(a,b) = \ together with the above rays form a base for the order topology. The open sets in ''X'' are the sets that are a union of (possibly infinitely many) such open intervals and rays. A topological space ''X'' is called orderable or linearly orderable if there exists a total order on its elements such that the order topology induced by that order and the given topology on ''X'' coincide. The order topology makes ''X'' into a completely normal Hausdorff space. The standard topologies on R, Q, Z, and N are the order topologies. Indu ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Countably Compact Space In mathematics a topological space is called countably compact if every countable open cover has a finite subcover. Equivalent definitions A topological space ''X'' is called countably compact if it satisfies any of the following equivalent conditions: :(1) Every countable open cover of ''X'' has a finite subcover. :(2) Every infinite ''set'' ''A'' in ''X'' has an ω-accumulation point in ''X''. :(3) Every ''sequence'' in ''X'' has an accumulation point in ''X''. :(4) Every countable family of closed subsets of ''X'' with an empty intersection has a finite subfamily with an empty intersection. (1) \Rightarrow (2): Suppose (1) holds and ''A'' is an infinite subset of ''X'' without \omega-accumulation point. By taking a subset of ''A'' if necessary, we can assume that ''A'' is countable. Every x\in X has an open neighbourhood O_x such that O_x\cap A is finite (possibly empty), since ''x'' is ''not'' an ω-accumulation point. For every finite subset ''F'' of ''A'' define O_F = \ ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Sequentially Compact Space In mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is sequentially compact if every sequence of points in ''X'' has a convergent subsequence converging to a point in X. Every metric space is naturally a topological space, and for metric spaces, the notions of compactness and sequential compactness are equivalent (if one assumes countable choice). However, there exist sequentially compact topological spaces that are not compact, and compact topological spaces that are not sequentially compact. Examples and properties The space of all real numbers with the standard topology is not sequentially compact; the sequence (s_n) given by s_n = n for all natural numbers ''n'' is a sequence that has no convergent subsequence. If a space is a metric space, then it is sequentially compact if and only if it is compact. The first uncountable ordinal with the order topology is an example of a sequentially compact topological space that is not compact. The product of 2^=\mathfrak c copies of the clo ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Continuity (topology) In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are the mo ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Limit Of A Function Although the function (sin ''x'')/''x'' is not defined at zero, as ''x'' becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin ''x'')/''x'' becomes arbitrarily close to 1. In other words, the limit of (sin ''x'')/''x'', as ''x'' approaches zero, equals 1. In mathematics, the limit of a function is a fundamental concept in calculus and analysis concerning the behavior of that function near a particular input. Formal definitions, first devised in the early 19th century, are given below. Informally, a function ''f'' assigns an output ''f''(''x'') to every input ''x''. We say that the function has a limit ''L'' at an input ''p,'' if ''f''(''x'') gets closer and closer to ''L'' as ''x'' moves closer and closer to ''p''. More specifically, when ''f'' is applied to any input ''sufficiently'' close to ''p'', the output value is forced ''arbitrarily'' close to ''L''. On the other hand, if some inputs very close to ''p'' are taken to outputs that stay a fixed distance apart, ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Sequential Space In topology and related fields of mathematics, a sequential space is a topological space whose topology can be completely characterized by its convergent/divergent sequences. They can be thought of as spaces that satisfy a very weak axiom of countability, and all first-countable spaces (especially metric spaces) are sequential. In any topological space (X, \tau), if a convergent sequence is contained in a closed set C, then the limit of that sequence must be contained in C as well. This property is known as sequential closure. Sequential spaces are precisely those topological spaces for which sequentially closed sets are in fact closed. (These definitions can also be rephrased in terms of sequentially open sets; see below.) Said differently, any topology can be described in terms of nets (also known as Moore–Smith sequences), but those sequences may be "too long" (indexed by too large an ordinal) to compress into a sequence. Sequential spaces are those topological space ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Limit Of A Sequence As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) becomes arbitrarily close to 1. We say that "the limit of the sequence n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) equals 1." In mathematics, the limit of a sequence is the value that the terms of a sequence "tend to", and is often denoted using the \lim symbol (e.g., \lim_a_n).Courant (1961), p. 29. If such a limit exists, the sequence is called convergent. A sequence that does not converge is said to be divergent. The limit of a sequence is said to be the fundamental notion on which the whole of mathematical analysis ultimately rests. Limits can be defined in any metric or topological space, but are usually first encountered in the real numbers. History The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea is famous for formulating paradoxes that involve limiting processes. Leucippus, Democritus, Antiphon, Eudoxus, and Archimedes developed the method of exhaustion, which uses an infinite sequence of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Closure (topology) In topology, the closure of a subset of points in a topological space consists of all points in together with all limit points of . The closure of may equivalently be defined as the union of and its boundary, and also as the intersection of all closed sets containing . Intuitively, the closure can be thought of as all the points that are either in or "near" . A point which is in the closure of is a point of closure of . The notion of closure is in many ways dual to the notion of interior. Definitions Point of closure For S as a subset of a Euclidean space, x is a point of closure of S if every open ball centered at x contains a point of S (this point can be x itself). This definition generalizes to any subset S of a metric space X. Fully expressed, for X as a metric space with metric d, x is a point of closure of S if for every r > 0 there exists some s \in S such that the distance d(x, s) < r ($x = s$ is allowed). Another way to express this is to ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Discrete Space In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a , meaning they are '' isolated'' from each other in a certain sense. The discrete topology is the finest topology that can be given on a set. Every subset is open in the discrete topology so that in particular, every singleton subset is an open set in the discrete topology. Definitions Given a set X: A metric space (E,d) is said to be '' uniformly discrete'' if there exists a ' r > 0 such that, for any x,y \in E, one has either x = y or d(x,y) > r. The topology underlying a metric space can be discrete, without the metric being uniformly discrete: for example the usual metric on the set \left\. Properties The underlying uniformity on a discrete metric space is the discrete uniformity, and the underlying topology on a discrete uniform space is the discrete topology. Thus, the different notions of discrete space are compatible with one ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]