Elliptic Curve
In mathematics, an elliptic curve is a smooth, projective, algebraic curve of genus one, on which there is a specified point . An elliptic curve is defined over a field and describes points in , the Cartesian product of with itself. If the field's characteristic is different from 2 and 3, then the curve can be described as a plane algebraic curve which consists of solutions for: :y^2 = x^3 + ax + b for some coefficients and in . The curve is required to be nonsingular, which means that the curve has no cusps or selfintersections. (This is equivalent to the condition , that is, being squarefree in .) It is always understood that the curve is really sitting in the projective plane, with the point being the unique point at infinity. Many sources define an elliptic curve to be simply a curve given by an equation of this form. (When the coefficient field has characteristic 2 or 3, the above equation is not quite general enough to include all nonsingular cubic cu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cubic Plane Curve
In mathematics, a cubic plane curve is a plane algebraic curve defined by a cubic equation : applied to homogeneous coordinates for the projective plane; or the inhomogeneous version for the affine space determined by setting in such an equation. Here is a nonzero linear combination of the thirddegree monomials : These are ten in number; therefore the cubic curves form a projective space of dimension 9, over any given field . Each point imposes a single linear condition on , if we ask that pass through . Therefore, we can find some cubic curve through any nine given points, which may be degenerate, and may not be unique, but will be unique and nondegenerate if the points are in general position; compare to two points determining a line and how five points determine a conic. If two cubics pass through a given set of nine points, then in fact a pencil of cubics does, and the points satisfy additional properties; see Cayley–Bacharach theorem. A cubic curve may ha ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Ellipticcurve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to publickey cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. ECC allows smaller keys compared to nonEC cryptography (based on plain Galois fields) to provide equivalent security.Commercial National Security Algorithm Suite and Quantum Computing FAQ U.S. National Security Agency, January 2016. Elliptic curves are applicable for , s, [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wiles's Proof Of Fermat's Last Theorem
Wiles's proof of Fermat's Last Theorem is a proof by British mathematician Andrew Wiles of a special case of the modularity theorem for elliptic curves. Together with Ribet's theorem, it provides a proof for Fermat's Last Theorem. Both Fermat's Last Theorem and the modularity theorem were almost universally considered inaccessible to prove by contemporaneous mathematicians, meaning that they were believed to be impossible to prove using current knowledge. Wiles first announced his proof on 23 June 1993 at a lecture in Cambridge entitled "Modular Forms, Elliptic Curves and Galois Representations". However, in September 1993 the proof was found to contain an error. One year later on 19 September 1994, in what he would call "the most important moment of isworking life", Wiles stumbled upon a revelation that allowed him to correct the proof to the satisfaction of the mathematical community. The corrected proof was published in 1995. Wiles's proof uses many techniques from algebrai ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Number Theory
Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and arithmetic function, integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die Königin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die Königin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integers). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of Complex analysis, analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Isomorphism
In abstract algebra, a group isomorphism is a function between two groups that sets up a onetoone correspondence between the elements of the groups in a way that respects the given group operations. If there exists an isomorphism between two groups, then the groups are called isomorphic. From the standpoint of group theory, isomorphic groups have the same properties and need not be distinguished. Definition and notation Given two groups (G, *) and (H, \odot), a ''group isomorphism'' from (G, *) to (H, \odot) is a bijective group homomorphism from G to H. Spelled out, this means that a group isomorphism is a bijective function f : G \to H such that for all u and v in G it holds that f(u * v) = f(u) \odot f(v). The two groups (G, *) and (H, \odot) are isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism from one to the other. This is written (G, *) \cong (H, \odot). Often shorter and simpler notations can be used. When the relevant group operations are understood, they are omitted and one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Projective Plane
In mathematics, the complex projective plane, usually denoted P2(C), is the twodimensional complex projective space. It is a complex manifold of complex dimension 2, described by three complex coordinates :(Z_1,Z_2,Z_3) \in \mathbf^3,\qquad (Z_1,Z_2,Z_3)\neq (0,0,0) where, however, the triples differing by an overall rescaling are identified: :(Z_1,Z_2,Z_3) \equiv (\lambda Z_1,\lambda Z_2, \lambda Z_3);\quad \lambda\in \mathbf,\qquad \lambda \neq 0. That is, these are homogeneous coordinates in the traditional sense of projective geometry. Topology The Betti numbers of the complex projective plane are :1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, ..... The middle dimension 2 is accounted for by the homology class of the complex projective line, or Riemann sphere, lying in the plane. The nontrivial homotopy groups of the complex projective plane are \pi_2=\pi_5=\mathbb. The fundamental group is trivial and all other higher homotopy groups are those of the 5sphere, i.e. torsion. Algebraic geometry ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Torus
In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut or doughnut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in threedimensional space about an axis that is coplanar with the circle. If the axis of revolution does not touch the circle, the surface has a ring shape and is called a torus of revolution. If the axis of revolution is tangent to the circle, the surface is a horn torus. If the axis of revolution passes twice through the circle, the surface is a spindle torus. If the axis of revolution passes through the center of the circle, the surface is a degenerate torus, a doublecovered sphere. If the revolved curve is not a circle, the surface is called a ''toroid'', as in a square toroid. Realworld objects that approximate a torus of revolution include swim rings, inner tubes and ringette rings. Eyeglass lenses that combine spherical and cylindrical correction are toric lenses. A torus should not be confused with a '' solid torus'', which is formed by r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elliptic Function
In the mathematical field of complex analysis, elliptic functions are a special kind of meromorphic functions, that satisfy two periodicity conditions. They are named elliptic functions because they come from elliptic integrals. Originally those integrals occurred at the calculation of the arc length of an ellipse. Important elliptic functions are Jacobi elliptic functions and the Weierstrass \wpfunction. Further development of this theory led to hyperelliptic functions and modular forms. Definition A meromorphic function is called an elliptic function, if there are two \mathbb linear independent complex numbers \omega_1,\omega_2\in\mathbb such that : f(z + \omega_1) = f(z) and f(z + \omega_2) = f(z), \quad \forall z\in\mathbb. So elliptic functions have two periods and are therefore also called ''doubly periodic''. Period lattice and fundamental domain Iff is an elliptic function with periods \omega_1,\omega_2 it also holds that : f(z+\gamma)=f(z) for every linear ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadric (algebraic Geometry)
In mathematics, a quadric or quadric hypersurface is the subspace of ''N''dimensional space defined by a polynomial equation of degree 2 over a field. Quadrics are fundamental examples in algebraic geometry. The theory is simplified by working in projective space rather than affine space. An example is the quadric surface :xy=zw in projective space ^3 over the complex numbers C. A quadric has a natural action of the orthogonal group, and so the study of quadrics can be considered as a descendant of Euclidean geometry. Many properties of quadrics hold more generally for projective homogeneous varieties. Another generalization of quadrics is provided by Fano varieties. Basic properties By definition, a quadric ''X'' of dimension ''n'' over a field ''k'' is the subspace of \mathbf^ defined by ''q'' = 0, where ''q'' is a nonzero homogeneous polynomial of degree 2 over ''k'' in variables x_0,\ldots,x_. (A homogeneous polynomial is also called a form, and so ''q'' may be called a q ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Squarefree Polynomial
In mathematics, a squarefree polynomial is a polynomial defined over a field (or more generally, an integral domain) that does not have as a divisor any square of a nonconstant polynomial. A univariate polynomial is square free if and only if it has no multiple root in an algebraically closed field containing its coefficients. This motivates that, in applications in physics and engineering, a squarefree polynomial is commonly called a polynomial with no repeated roots. In the case of univariate polynomials, the product rule implies that, if divides , then divides the formal derivative of . The converse is also true and hence, f is squarefree if and only if 1 is a greatest common divisor of the polynomial and its derivative. A squarefree decomposition or squarefree factorization of a polynomial is a factorization into powers of squarefree polynomials : f = a_1 a_2^2 a_3^3 \cdots a_n^n =\prod_^n a_k^k\, where those of the that are nonconstant are pairwise coprime squar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 